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1849–Horticulturist, Luther Burbank, is born in Lancaster, Massachusetts. He developed more than 800 strains and varieties of plants over his 55-year career. Burbank grew up on a farm and received only an elementary school education. The 13th of 18 children, he enjoyed the plants in his mother's large garden. Years later, in Santa Rosa, California, Burbank purchased a four-acre plot of land, and established a greenhouse, nursery, and experimental fields that he used to conduct crossbreeding experiments on plants. His friend and admirer, Paramahansa Yogananda, wrote in his Autobiography of a Yogi: “His heart was fathomlessly deep, long acquainted with humility, patience, sacrifice. His little home amid the roses was austerely simple; he knew the worthlessness of luxury, the joy of few possessions. The modesty with which he wore his scientific fame repeatedly reminded me of the trees that bend low with the burden of ripening fruits; it is the barren tree that lifts its head high in an empty boast.”



BC 322–Greek philosopher, Aristotle, dies in Euboea, Greece, at age 62. His writings covered many subjects, including physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry, theater, music, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, and government. His works constitute the first comprehensive system of Western philosophy.

161–Emperor Antoninus Pius dies in Lorium, Italy, at age 74. He is succeeded by his adoptive sons Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus.

189–Roman Emperor, Publius Septimius Geta, is born in Rome, Italy.

238–Roman subjects in the province of Africa revolt against Maximinus Thrax and elect Gordian I as Emperor.

321–Emperor Constantine I decrees that the dies Solis Invicti (sun-day) is the day of rest in the Empire.

1274–Medieval Italian intellectual, Saint Thomas Aquinas, dies in Fossanova, Papal States, at age 48. Thomas is honored as a Saint by the Catholic Church and is held to be the model teacher for those studying for the priesthood.

1277–Stephen Tempier, Bishop of Paris, condemns 219 philosophical and theological theses.

1507–Magdalena of Saxony is born in Dresden, Germany.

1517–Maria of Aragon, Queen of Portugal, dies Lisbon, Kingdom of Portugal, at age 34.

1550–William IV, Duke of Bavaria, dies in Munich, Germany, at age 56.

1573–A peace treaty is signed between the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Venice, ending the Ottoman-Venetian War (1570-1573) and leaving Cyprus in Ottoman hands.

1671–Rob Roy MacGregor, is born in Glengyle, Scotland. He was a famous Scottish folk hero and outlaw of the early 18th century, who is sometimes known as the Scottish Robin Hood.

1693–Pope Clement XIII is born Carlo della Torre di Rezzonico in Venice, Republic of Venice.

1707–Politician, Stephen Hopkins, signer of the Declaration of Independence, is born in Providence, Rhode Island. He was a governor of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, and a Chief Justice of the Rhode Island Supreme Court.

1723–Prince Vittorio Amedeo Theodore of Savoy is born at the Royal Palace of Turin in Turin, Italy.

1724–Pope Innocent XIII dies of a ruptured hernia in Rome, Papal State, at age 68.

1730–Louis Auguste Le Tonnelier de Breteuil, Prime Minister of France, is born in Azay-le-Ferron, France. He was a French aristocrat, diplomat, statesman, and politician. He was the last Prime Minister of the Bourbon Monarchy, appointed by King Louis XVI only 100 hours before the storming of the Bastille.

1765–Inventor, Nicéphore Niépce, is born in Chalon-sur-Saône, Saône-et-Loire, France. He is credited as the inventor of photography and a pioneer in that field. He also invented the first internal combustion engine, which he conceived, created, and developed with his older brother, Claude.

1792–Mathematician and astronomer, John Herschel, is born John Frederick William Herschel in Slough, England. He originated the use of the Julian day system in astronomy. He named seven moons of Saturn and four moons of Uranus. He made many contributions to the science of photography, and investigated color blindness and the chemical power of ultraviolet rays. He also conceptualized a practical contact lens design in 1823.

1799–Napoleon Bonaparte captures Jaffa in Palestine and his troops proceed to kill more than 2,000 Albanian captives.

1841–Businessman and publisher, William Rockhill Nelson, is born in Fort Wayne, Indiana. He founded The Kansas City Star.

1844–Ceramicist, John Wedgwood dies in Tenby, Pembrokeshire, England, at age 77. He was a partner in the Wedgewood Pottery Firm, and the founder of the Royal Horticulture Society.

1849–Horticulturist, Luther Burbank, is born in Lancaster, Massachusetts. He developed more than 800 strains and varieties of plants over his 55-year career. Burbank grew up on a farm and received only an elementary school education. The 13th of 18 children, he enjoyed the plants in his mother's large garden. Years later, in Santa Rosa, California, Burbank purchased a four-acre plot of land, and established a greenhouse, nursery, and experimental fields that he used to conduct crossbreeding experiments on plants. His friend and admirer, Paramahansa Yogananda, wrote in his Autobiography of a Yogi: “His heart was fathomlessly deep, long acquainted with humility, patience, sacrifice. His little home amid the roses was austerely simple; he knew the worthlessness of luxury, the joy of few possessions. The modesty with which he wore his scientific fame repeatedly reminded me of the trees that bend low with the burden of ripening fruits; it is the barren tree that lifts its head high in an empty boast.”

1850–Senator Daniel Webster gives his "Seventh of March" speech, endorsing the Compromise of 1850 in order to prevent a possible civil war.

1850–Tomas Garrigue Masaryk, sociologist and politician, is born in Hodonín, Austrian Empire (present-day Czech Republic). He was first President of Czechoslovakia.

1857–Baseball officials decide that nine innings constitutes an official game (not nine runs).

1872–Dutch painter of the De Stijl art movement, Piet Mondrian, is born Pieter Cornelis Mondriaan in Amersfoort, Netherlands. While his early work included impressionist landscapes and even some experiments with cubism, he is best known for the non-representational works he developed. These were made up of black grids on white, some blocks filled in with primary colors.

1875–Composer, (Joseph) Maurice Ravel, is born in Cibourne, France. He is best known for the erotic composition, Bolero. In the 1920s and 1930s, Ravel was internationally regarded as France's greatest living composer. As a slow and painstaking worker, Ravel composed fewer pieces than many of his contemporaries. Among his works to enter the repertoire are pieces for piano, chamber music, two piano concertos, ballet music, two operas, and eight song cycles.

1876–Alexander Graham Bell receives a patent for his invention of the telephone.

1899–Publisher, Richard Leo Simon, is born in New York, New York. In 1921, he made a piano sales call to a man named Max Lincoln Schuster. He didn't sell him a piano, but they found they had the love of music and the love of books in common, and they became fast friends. Simon switched from selling pianos to selling books, and eventually the two friends pooled their savings of $8,000 to open their own publishing firm called Simon & Schuster.

1900–The German oceanliner, SS Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse, becomes the first ship to send wireless signals to shore.

1901–Princess Elisabeth of Luxembourg is born Elisabeth Marie Wilhelmine in Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.

1908–Actress, Anna Magnani, is born in Rome, Italy. She appeared in the films The Blind Woman of Sorrento, Those Two, Calvary, Princess Tarakanova, The Last Wagon, Down with Misery, The Bandit, Volcano, The Rose Tattoo, Wild is the Wind, and The Fugitive Kind. She was married to film director, Goffredo Alessandrini.

1912–Roald Amundsen announces that his expedition has reached the South Pole.

1914–The Coca-Cola Bottler's Association is formed.

1915–Jacques Chaban-Delmas, Prime Minister of France (1969-1972), is born Jacques Michel Pierre Delmas in Paris, France.

1917–The world's first jazz record, The Dixie Jazz Band One Step, recorded by Nick LaRocca´s Original Dixieland Jazz Band, is released by RCA Victor in Camden, New Jersey.

1926–The first successful transatlantic radio-telephone conversation takes place between New York City and London, England.

1927–The U.S. Supreme Court declares Texas' whites-only Democratic primary unconstitutional.

1927–A 7.9 earthquake results in 3,020 deaths in Tango, Japan.

1927–Actor, James Broderick, is born James Joseph Broderick III in Charlestown, New Hampshire. He is best known for the role of Doug Lawrence in the TV drama series Family, which ran from 1976 to 1980. He appeared in the films Girl of the Night, The Group, The Tree, Alice’s Restaurant, The Taking of Pelham One Two Three, and Dog Day Afternoon. His son is actor, Matthew Broderick.

1930–Photographer, Antony Armstrong-Jones, the first Earl of Snowdon, is born Antony Charles Robert Armstrong-Jones in London, England. He was the artistic adviser of The Sunday Times magazine, and by the 1970s had established himself as one of Britain's most respected photographers. His work has been published in Vogue, Vanity Fair, and The Daily Telegraph magazine. He was married to Princess Margaret, younger daughter of King George VI, and younger sister of Queen Elizabeth II.

1932–Aristide Briand, Prime Minister of France, dies in Paris, France, at age 69.

1933–The game of "Monopoly" is invented by Charles Darrow. He later sold his rights to the game to Parker Brothers and became a millionaire at age 46.

1934–Weather forecaster, Willard Scott, is born Willard Herman Scott, Jr. in Alexandria, Virginia. He is best known as the weatherman on The Today Show on NBC-TV. He also was the original Ronald McDonald.

1939–Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians record their signature tune, Auld Lang Syne, for Decca Records.

1939–Glamour magazine publishes its first issue.

1940–Actor, Daniel J. Travanti, is born Danielo Giovanni Travanti in Kenosha, Wisconsin. He is best known for the starring role as Captain Frank Furillo in the TV drama Hill Street Blues. He appeared in the films Midnight Crossing, Millennium, Hello Stranger, and Just Cause.

1942–Tammy Faye Bakker, wife of evangelist, of Jim Bakker, is born Tamara Faye LaValley in International Falls, Minnesota. Jim and Tammy founded the PTL Club (Praise The Lord) in the mid-1970s. In 1989, after a pro-longed sex scandal, Jim Bakker was sentenced to 45 years in prison on 24 fraud and conspiracy counts.

1942–Michael (Dammann) Eisner, CEO of Walt Disney Productions, is born in Mount Kisko, New York.

1943–Chris White, bass player for The Zombies, is born Christopher Taylor White in Barnet, Hertfordshire, England. The Zombies had a string of hits in the mid-1960s including She’s Not There, Tell Her No, and Time of the Season.

1945–Actor, John Heard, is born in Washington, D.C. He appeared in the films First Love, Chilly Scenes of Winter, Heart Beat, Cutter’s Way, Cat People, C.H.U.D., Heaven Help Us, After Hours, The Trip to Bountiful, The Milagro Beanfield War, The Seventh Sign, Big, Beaches, Mindwalk, The End of Innocence, Home Alone, Awakenings, Rambling Rose, Deceived, Radio Flyer, In the Line of fire, The Pelican Brief, Before and After, Pollock, and The Lucky Ones. He was married to actress, Margot Kidder, for six days in 1979.

1945–Arthur Lee, of Love, is born Arthur Taylor in Memphis, Tennessee. The band is best known for their critically acclaimed 1967 album Forever Changes.

1946–The 18th Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: The Lost Weekend; Best Actor: Ray Milland for The Lost Weekend; Best Actress: Joan Crawford for Mildred Pierce; Best Director: Billy Wilder for The Lost Weekend. The ceremonies are held at Grauman’s Chinese Theater, Hollywood, California. The hosts are James Stewart and Bob Hope.

1946–Matthew (Charles) Fisher, organist of Procol Harum, is born in Addiscombe, Croydon, England. His classical improvisation intro is the signature of the band’s biggest hit, A Whiter Shade of Pale.

1946–Rocker singer, Peter Wolf, of the J. Giels Band, is born Peter W. Blankfield in the Bronx, New York. The band’s biggest hit was their 1981 single, Centerfold, which charted at #1 in America. He was married to actress, Faye Dunaway.

1947–Actress-singer, Donna Loren, is born Donna Zukorin Boston, Massachusetts. She was the Dr Pepper spokesperson from 1963 to 1968, a frequent vocalist on ABC-TV's Shindig, and a cast member of the “Beach Party” movie series.

1952–Football player, Lynn (Curtis) Swann, is born in Alcoa, Tennessee. Swann spent his entire NFL career with the Pittsburgh Steelers and wore the jersey number 88. As a rookie, he led the NFL with 577 punt return yards, a franchise record and the fourth most in NFL history at the time. He went on to win a championship ring with the Steelers in Super Bowl IX.

1952–Indian guru, Paramahansa Yogananda, dies of heart failure at the Biltmore Hotel in Los Angeles, California, at age 59. In the days leading up to his death, he began hinting that it was time for him to leave the world. In 1946, Yogananda published his life story, Autobiography of a Yogi. It has since been translated into 34 languages and has been designated one of the "100 Most Important Spiritual Books of the 20th Century."

1955–The stage play, Peter Pan, starring Mary Martin as Peter Pan and Cyril Richard as Captain Hook, is presented as an American television special for the first time.

1955–Carl Perkins' Blue Suede Shoes enters the R&B chart. It is the first time a Country & Western artist has crossed over to the R&B chart.

1955–Phyllis Diller makes her debut as a stand-up comic at the Purple Onion in San Francisco, California.

1955–The 7th Annual Primetime Emmy Awards announces its winners. Best Dramatic Program: The United States Steel Hour; Best Situation Comedy: Make Room for Daddy; Best Variety Program: Disneyland; Best Mystery Series: Dragnet; Best Western or Adventure Series: Stories of the Century; Best Audience Participation, Quiz or Panel Program: This Is Your Life; Best Cultural, Religious, or Educational Program: Omnibus; Best Children's Program: Lassie; Best Actor: Danny Thomas; Best Actress: Loretta Young; Most Outstanding Personality: George Gobel. The ceremonies are held at the Moulin Rouge Nightclub in Hollywood, California. The host is Steve Allen. This is the first Emmy Awards ceremony to be televised nationally.

1956–Lonnie Donegan’s hit song, Rock Island Line, is doing well on the pop music charts in the U.K. Donegan’s popular sound ushered in the new music craze called "skiffle," giving practically every British lad a chance to play in a band.

1962–Singer, Taylor Dayne, is born Leslie Wunderman in Long Island, New York.

1964–The Dave Clark Five bring their “Tottenham” sound to The Ed Sullivan Show for the first time, two weeks after The Beatles made their third appearance on the show. Inexplicably, The Dave Clark Five went on to appear 18 more times on the Sullivan program.

1964–Capitol Records is besieged with requests for heavyweight boxing champ Cassius Clay's album, I Am the Greatest. It's in big demand because of Clay's recent defeat of Sonny Liston. Sales are expected to reach 500,000 copies and Clays says, "I'm better and prettier than Chubby Checker."

1964–Novelist, Bret Easton Ellis, is born in Los Angeles, California. He was regarded as one of the so-called literary Brat Pack, which also included Tama Janowitz and Jay McInerney. He is best known for his novels Less Than Zero and American Psycho.

1965–A march by 600 civil rights demonstrators is broken up by state troopers and a sheriff's posse in Selma, Alabama.

1966–The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1967–Writer, Alice B. Toklas, dies in poverty in Paris, France, at age 89. She met Gertrude Stein in Paris, France, on September 8, 1907, the day she arrived there. Together they hosted a salon that attracted expatriate American writers, such as Ernest Hemingway, Paul Bowles, Thornton Wilder, and Sherwood Anderson; along with avant-garde painters, including Picasso, Matisse, and Braque.

1967–Actress, Sandra Dee, files for divorce from singer, Bobby Darin.

1967–Teamster President, Jimmy Hoffa, begins an eight-year prison sentence for defrauding the union and jury tampering.

1969–Golda Meir is elected the first female Prime Minister of Israel.

1969–The USSR conducts a nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh.

1969–The Victoria Line tube opens in London, England.

1970–Actress, Rachel (Hannah) Weisz, is born in London, England. She has appeared in the films Chain Reaction, Stealing Beauty, Bent, Going All the Way, The Mummy, Beautiful Creatures, Enemy at the Gates, About a Boy, Constantine, The Constant Gardner, The Whistleblower, and The Deep Blue Sea.

1973–Comet Kohoutek is discovered at the Hamburg Observatory.

1975–The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1976–A likeness of Elton John is put on display at London's Madame Tussaud's Wax Museum. He is the first rock figure given the honor since The Beatles were first immortalized in wax back in March 1964.

1979–Warren Giles and Hack Wilson are elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame.

1981–The first homicide at Disneyland takes place when an 18-year-old is stabbed to death.

1982–BBC Radio broadcasts a two-hour special program, "The Beatles at the BEEB," featuring selections from tapes of The Beatles' BBC performances in the early 1960s.

1983–The Nashville Network (TNN) begins broadcasting on cable TV.

1985–IBM-PC DOS Version 3.1 is released.

1985–The song We Are the World is released worldwide.

1988–Cross-dressing actor, Divine (Harris Glenn Milstead), dies of an enlarged heart in Los Angeles, California, at age 42. He was known for his roles in the John Waters’ films, Pink Flamingos, Polyester, and Hairspray.

1989–The State Council of the People's Republic of China declares martial law in Lhasa, Tibet.

1990–A major ice storm has much of Iowa under a thick coat of ice. It is the state’s worst ice storm in at least 25 years for Iowa, perhaps the worst of the century. Up to two inches of ice coated much of western and central Iowa, with three inches reported at other locations. As much as five inches of ice was reported on some electrical lines. The ice downed 78 towers in a 17-mile stretch of high voltage lines, costing three electric utilities $15 million. Damage to trees was incredible, with total damage from the storm more than $50 million.

1991–Iraq continues to explode oil fields in Kuwait.

1994–The U.S. Supreme Court rules that raunchy rap group 2 Live Crew's, Pretty Woman, a parody of Roy Orbison's 1964 hit, does not violate federal copyright laws. They state that parodies of an original work are generally covered by the doctrine of fair use.

1999–Former Beatle, George Harrison, attends the Australian Grand Prix in Melbourne. He is interviewed by the Melbourne Herald Sun and is asked when his next album will be released. He says: “I don’t know. Maybe next month, maybe not. Maybe sometime, maybe not. I’m saving them up for when I kick the bucket. Some people will really want it then and I will sell more copies!”

1999–Blues guitarist, Lowell Fulson, dies of congestive heart failure in Long Beach, California, at age 77. He was one of the most important figures in West Coast blues in the 1940s and 1950s.

1999–Film director, Stanley Kubrick, dies of a heart attack in Harpenden, Hertfordshire, England, at age 70. Part of the New Hollywood film-making wave, he is regarded as one of the greatest and most influential directors of all time. His films include The Killing, Paths of Glory, Spartacus, Lolita, Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb, 2001: A Space Odyssey, A Clockwork Orange, Barry Lyndon, The Shining, Full Metal Jacket, and Eyes Wide Shut.

2000–Country singer, Pee Wee King, dies of a heart attack in Louisville, Kentucky, at age 86. His songs include Tennessee Waltz, Bonaparte’s Retreat, Slow Poke, Changing Partners, and Bimbo. He was inducted into the Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1970, and the Country Music Hall of Fame in 1974.

2001–The National Endowment for the Arts, in conjunction with the RIAA, announces its Top Ten songs of the 20th century. At #1 is Over The Rainbow by Judy Garland. Also making the list: #2 White Christmas by Bing Crosby, #4 Respect by Aretha Franklin, #5 American Pie by Don McLean, and #9 You've Lost That Lovin' Feeling by The Righteous Brothers.

2004–Actor, Paul Winfield, dies of a heart attack in Los Angeles, California, at age 64. He appeared in the films Brother John, Sounder, Conrack, Hustle, Damnation Alley, The Greatest, Carbon Copy, Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan, The Terminator, Big Shots, Presumed Innocent, and Cliffhanger.

2005–Screenwriter and film producer, Debra Hill, dies in Los Angeles, California, at age 54. In 1978, she and director, John Carpenter, co-wrote the horror movie Halloween. Following its success, they worked together on Halloween II and Halloween III: Season of the Witch. Their other credits together include The Fog, Escape from New York, and its sequel, Escape from L.A. On her own, she produced Adventures in Babysitting, Big Top Pee-wee, Heartbreak Hotel, Gross Anatomy, and The Fisher King.

2006–Apple Inc. is granted the patent to the iPod.

2006–The terrorist organisation Lashkar-e-Taiba coordinates a series of bombings in Varanasi, India.

2006–Actor, John Junkin, dies of lung cancer, emphysema, and asthma in the Florence Nightingale House, Stoke Mandeville, Buckinghamshire, England, at age 76. He is best remembered for the role of Shake in The Beatles film, A Hard Day's Night.

2007–The British House of Commons votes to make members of the upper chamber, the House of Lords, 100% elected.

2009–The Kepler Space Observatory, designed to discover Earth-like planets orbiting other stars, is launched.

2009–The Real Irish Republican Army kills two British soldiers and two civilians at Massereene Barracks, the first British military deaths in Northern Ireland since the end of The Troubles.

2009–Actor, Jimmy Boyd, dies of cancer in Santa Monica, California, at age 70. He is best known for his hit song I Saw Mommy Kissing Santa Claus, which he recorded when he was 13 years old. He appeared in the films Racing Blood, The Second Greatest Sex, Platinum High School, Inherit the Wind, High Time, Norwood, Mean Dog Blues, and Brainstorm.

2010–The 82nd Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: The Hurt Locker; Best Actor: Jeff Bridges for Crazy Heart; Best Actress: Sandra Bullock for The Blind Side; Best Director: Kathryn Bigelow for The Hurt Locker; Best Foreign Film: The Secret in Their Eyes (Argentina). The ceremonies are held at the Kodak Theatre, Hollywood, California. The hosts are Steve Martin and Alec Baldwin. Academy President, Sid Ganis, announced at a press conference, that in an attempt to revitalize interest surrounding the awards, the 2010 ceremony would feature 10 Best Picture nominees instead of five, a practice that was discontinued after the 16th awards ceremony in 1944. Kathryn Bigelow makes history as the first female to win the Oscar for Best Director.

2010–Super-centenarian, Mary Josephine Ray, dies in Westmoreland, New Hampshire, at age 114 (and 294 days).

2013–Peter Banks, guitarist for Yes, dies of heart failure in Barnet, North London, England, at age 65.

2013–Country singer, Claude King, dies of natural causes Shreveport, Louisiana, at age 90. An original member of the Louisiana Hayride, King was best known for the 1962 hit Wolverton Mountain. The song held the #1 position on the Billboard Country Music chart for nine weeks and reached the “Top 10” of the Hot 100.

2016–Research published in the peer-reviewed scientific journal, Nature Geoscience, confirms that Mercury's darker than expected crusty exterior is from carbon, likely the remains of the planet's ancient surface crust of graphite, rather than carbon dust from comet impacts as previously thought.

2016–South Korea and the United States begin a joint military exercise as North Korea repeats threats of "indiscriminate" nuclear strikes.

2016–American sportscaster, Erin Andrews, is awarded $55 million in damages after a stranger secretly recorded her in the nude through a hotel door peephole, and posted the video on the Internet in 2008.

2016–Football quarterback, Peyton Manning, retires after 18 seasons in the National Football League with two Super Bowl championships, five MVP awards, and single-season and career league records for most passing yards and touchdown passes.


PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Aristotle; Rob Roy MacGregor; Nicéphore Niépce; Luther Burbank; Maurice Ravel; a bottle of Coca-Cola; James Broderick; a Monopoly board; Tammy Faye Bakker; Joan Crawford with her Oscar; Donna Loren; the cast of Make Room for Daddy; The Dave Clark Five; Bobby Darin and Sandra Dee; Rachel Weisz; the entrance to Disneyland; Divine; George Harrison at the Australian Grand Prix in Melbourne; Stanley Kubrick; White Christmas by Bing Crosby; Jeff Bridges with his Oscar; and Claude King.

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