365Emperor Ai of Jin dies of poisoning by pills that were given to him by magicians.
1282The people of Sicily rebel against the Angevin King Charles I, in what becomes known as the Sicilian Vespers.
1296Edward I sacks Berwick-upon-Tweed during armed conflict between Scotland and England.
1326Ivan II of Moscow, is born in Moscow, Grand Duchy of Moscow.
1432Ottoman Sultan, Mehmed the Conqueror, is born in Edirne, Edirne Province, Turkey.
1492King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella sign a decree expelling Jews from Spain.
1746Romantic painter and printmaker, Francisco de Goya, is born in Fuendetodos, Spain. He was appointed court painter to the Spanish Royals in 1789, giving him an income that allowed him to paint whatever he wished between Royal portraits. During this time, he produced his masterpiece, Desastres de la Guerra, (or The Disasters of War), 47 aquatint plates depicting the horrors of war and famine. Late in his life, he bought a house, covering the walls with paintings, both on canvas and directly on the walls, which included references to witchcraft and war, known as his Black Paintings. One of these is the famous work Saturn Devouring His Son, which many believe to be a reference to Spain's ongoing civil wars.
1814Great Britain and her allies march into Paris, France, after defeating Napoleon.
1822The U.S. Congress combines East and West Florida into the Florida Territory.
1830Louis I, Grand Duke of Baden, dies in Karlsruhe, Germany, at age 67. His death meant the extinction of his line of the Baden family.
1840Dandy, Beau Brummell, dies penniless and insane from syphilis in Le Bon Sauveur Asylum, Caen, France, at age 61.
1841The National Bank of Greece is founded in Athens, Greece.
1842Ether is used as an anesthetic for first time by Dr. Crawford Long in Jefferson, Georgia.
1844French poet, Paul Verlaine, is born in Metz, France. He was associated with the Symbolists poets and with Rimbaud, Stéphane Mallarmé, and Charles Baudelaire.
1853Dutch painter, Vincent Van Gogh, is born in Groot-Zundert, Netherlands. The oldest child of a Protestant pastor, he served briefly as a minister himself, then went through a spiritual crisis and gave away all his possessions. He withdrew to practice drawing, and the last 10 years of his life were packed with furious effort and progress as a painter, producing over 2,000 paintings. The Provencal landscape was the focus of many of his best works, including Sunflowers. Van Gogh suffered with bouts of mental illness throughout his life, leading many to speculate if these episodes might have been exacerbated by his habit of chewing on his brushes and ingesting the heavy metals often used to color paints. After a quarrel with his friend, Paul Gauguin, over a prostitute, he cut off part of his own ear, and sent it to the woman. He was placed in an asylum at St-Rémy, and shortly after his release, shot himself, dying two days later. Many of his most famous works were created in the last two years of his life, and none were sold during his lifetime.
1856The Treaty of Paris is signed, ending the Crimean War.
1858Hymen L. Lipman, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, patents a pencil with an attached eraser.
1863Danish Prince, Wilhelm Georg, is chosen as King George of Greece.
1867Alaska is purchased from Russia for $7.2 million (about two cents per acre), by U.S. Secretary of State William H. Seward. This becomes known as Seward's Folly.
1870The 15th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution passes, guaranteeing the right to vote regardless of race.
1870Texas is readmitted to the Union following the Civil War.
1874Charles (Herbert) Lightoller, Second Officer on the RMS Titanic, is born in Chorley, Lancashire, England. He was the most senior officer to survive the Titanic disaster.
1874Politician, Nicolae Radescu, is born in Calimanesti, Romania. He was the last pre-Communist rule Prime Minister of Romania, serving from December 1944 to March 1945.
1880Irish playwright, Seán O'Casey, is born in Dublin, Ireland. A committed socialist, he was the first Irish playwright of note to write about the Dublin working classes. His works include Lament for Thomas Ashe, Songs of the Wren, The Shadow of a Gunman, Juno and the Paycock, The Plough and the Stars, The End of the Beginning, Red Roses for Me, Cock-a-Doodle Dandy, and The Bishops Bonfire.
1893Thomas F. Bayard becomes the first U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain.
1899The German Society of Chemistry issues an invitation to other national scientific organizations to appoint delegates to the International Committee on Atomic Weights. Today, as the Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights (CIAAW), its standards are accepted as the authoritative source in science and appear worldwide on the Periodic Table wall charts.
1899A storm buries Ruby, Colorado, under 141 inches of snow. Ruby was an old abandoned mining town on the Elk Mountain Range in the Crested Butte area.
1902Musician and bandleader, Ted Heath, is born George Edward Heath in Wandsworth, South London, England. He led Britain's greatest post-war big band, recording more than 100 albums and selling over 20 million records.
1902Super-centenarian, Frieda Szwillus, is born in Dessau, Germany (present-day Saxony-Anhalt, Germany). She will live to the age of 112 years (and 175 days). She had six siblings and three of them reached almost 100 years of age.
1909The Queensboro Bridge opens in New York, linking Manhattan and Queens.
1910The Mississippi Legislature establishes The University of Southern Mississippi.
1912Sultan Abdelhafid signs the Treaty of Fez, making Morocco a French protectorate.
1913Singer, Frankie Laine, is born Francesco Paolo LoVecchio in Chicago, Illinois. He is best known for singing the theme song to the Western TV series Rawhide. His other hits include Mule Train, Jezebel, High Noon, Cool Water, and Lord, You Gave Me a Mountain. Laine sang an eclectic variety of song styles and genres, from big band crooning to pop, gospel, rock, folk, jazz, and blues.
1914Blues player, Sonny Boy Williamson, is born in Madison County, Tennessee. He was a master of the blues harp, and his songs were covered by The Grateful Dead, The Allman Brothers Band, Canned Heat, and Rod Stewart. He played on hundreds of blues recordings for many pre-World War II blues artists. His popular songs include Good Morning, School Girl, Sugar Mama, Early in the Morning, and Stop Breaking Down. There are two blues artists that go by this same name: Sonny Boy Williamson I, and Sonny Boy Williamson II, who is actually Rice Miller, who after Williamson's death, went on to record many popular blues songs for Chicago's Checker Records label, touring Europe several times during the blues revival in the 1960s.
1917Actor, Herbert Anderson, is born in Oakland, California. He is best known for his role on the TV series Dennis The Menace. He was seen in many other TV shows including The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis, The Real McCoys, Perry Mason, Sea Hunt, Alfred Hitchcock Presents, My Three Sons, I Dream of Jeannie, Petticoat Junction, Bewitched, Family Affair, Adam-12, Green Acres, Batman, Dragnet, The Brady Bunch, Gunsmoke, Nanny and the Professor, The Rookies, The Man from U.N.C.L.E., and The Waltons. He appeared in the films Night Passage, My Man Godfrey, I Bury the Living, Sunrise at Campobello, and Hold On!
1923The world's first dance marathon is held in New York City's Audubon Ballroom.
1925Austrian philosopher, Rudolf Steiner, dies in Dornach, Switzerland, at age 64. Steiner gained initial recognition at the end of the 19th century as a literary critic, and published philosophical works including The Philosophy of Freedom. At the beginning of the 20th century, he founded a spiritual movement, Anthroposophy, with roots in German idealist philosophy and theosophy.
1926TV game show host, Peter Marshall, is born in Huntington, West Virginia. He hosted The Hollywood Squares.
1929Actor, Richard Dysart, is born in Boston, Massachusetts. He is best known for the role of Leland McKenzie on the TV drama L.A. Law. He appeared in the films Petulia, The Lost Man, The Hospital, The Terminal Man, The Crazy World of Julius Vrooder, The Day of the Locust, An Enemy of the People, Meteor, Being There, The Thing, The Falcon and the Snowman, Mask, Pale Rider, Wall Street, and Back to the Future Part III.
1930Actor, John (Allen) Astin, is born in Baltimore, Maryland. He appeared in the films West Side Story, That Touch of Mink, Move Over Darling, The Wheeler Dealers, Candy, Viva Max!, Operation Petticoat, Teen Wolf Too, The Charmings, Return of the Killer Tomatoes, and Stepmonster. He was married to actress, Patty Duke.
1930Australian-English singer-songwriter, Rolf Harris, is born in Bassendean, Perth, Australia. He is best known for Tie Me Kangaroo Down, Sport, which later became a Top 10 hit in Australia, the U.K., and America.
1932Amelia Earhart is the first woman to fly solo cross the Atlantic Ocean.
1937Actor-filmmaker, (Henry) Warren Beatty, is born in Richmond, Virginia. He appeared in the films Splendor in the Grass, The Roman Spring of Mrs. Stone, All Fall Down, Lilith, Promise Her Anything, Kaleidoscope, Bonnie and Clyde, The Only Game in Town, McCabe & Mrs. Miller, $, The Parallax View, Shampoo, Heaven Can Wait, Reds, Ishtar, Dick Tracy, Bugsy, Love Affair, Bulworth, and Town & Country. His sister is actress, Shirley MacLaine. He is married to actress, Annette Bening. Known as one of the biggest playboys in Hollywood history, he has been involved with Madonna, Cher, Michelle Phillips, Natalie Wood, Diane Keaton, Julie Christie, Joan Collins, Leslie Caron, Isabelle Adjani, Mary Tyler Moore, Goldie Hawn, Kate Jackson, Britt Ekland, Gilda Radner, Diane Sawyer, Carly Simon, Linda McCartney, Jacqueline Onassis, Carol Alt, Joni Mitchell, Maria Callas, Claudia Cardinale, Brigitte Bardot, Justine Bateman, Janice Dickinson, and Elle Macpherson.
1939The Heinkel He 100 fighter sets a world airspeed record of 463 mph.
1939Detective Comics #27 is released, introducing the character of Batman.
1941Graeme (Charles) Edge, drummer for The Moody Blues, is born in Rochester, Staffordshire, England.
1941Wasim Sajjad, President of Pakistan, is born in Jalandhar, Punjab, British India (present-day in Punjab, India).
1942Graeme Edge, drummer for The Moody Blues, is born in Rochester, England.
1943Rodgers & Hammerstein's Oklahoma! premieres on Broadway.
1943Singer, Jay Traynor, of Jay and the Americans, is born John Traynor in Brooklyn, New York. The groups hits include She Cried, Come a Little Bit Closer, Cara Mia, and This Magic Moment.
1944Out of 795 Lancasters, Halifaxes, and Mosquitos sent to attack Nuremberg, Germany, 95 bombers do not return, making it the largest Royal Air Force (RAF) Bomber Command loss of World War I.
1945Blues guitarist, Eric Clapton, is born Eric Clapp in Ripley, England. He played with The Yardbirds, John Mayall's Bluesbreakers, Cream, and Blind Faith. Then, a recording session for George Harrison's All Things Must Pass brought together the basic line-up which became Derek & the Dominos, yielding Clapton's masterpiece LP Layla. After a short tour with the Dominoes, he focused on a solo career.
1946The 3rd Annual Golden Globe Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: The Lost Weekend; Best Actor: Ray Milland for The Lost Weekend; Best Actress: Ingrid Bergman for The Bells of St. Mary's; Best Director: Billy Wilder for The Lost Weekend; Best International Film: The House I Live In.
1949When Iceland joins NATO, a riot breaks out in Austurvöllur square in Reykjavík.
1950The inventing of the phototransistor is announced in Murray Hill, New Jersey.
1950Dave Ball, drummer with Procol Harum, is born David J Ball in Handsworth, Birmingham, England.
1950Actor-comedian, Robbie Coltrane, is born Anthony Robert McMillan in Rutherglen, South Lanarkshire, Scotland. He appeared in the films Flash Gordon, Death Watch, Britannia Hospital, Krull, National Lampoons European Vacation, Mona Lisa, Henry V, Bert Rigby, Youre a Fool, Let It Ride, Nuns on the Run, The Pope Must Die, Message in a Bottle, Harry Potter and the Philosophers Stone, and Oceans Twelve.
1950Politician, Léon Blum, dies in Jouy-en-Josas, France, at age 77. He was identified with the moderate left, and served three times as Prime Minister of France.
1951Remington Rand delivers the first UNIVAC I computer to the United States Census Bureau.
1953Physicist, Albert Einstein, announces a revised Unified Field Theory.
1954The Toronto Transit Commission opens the first part of the Toronto subway. It is the first subway in Canada.
1955The 27th Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: On the Waterfront; Best Actor: Marlon Brando for On the Waterfront; Best Actress: Grace Kelly for The Country Girl; Best Director: Elia Kazan for On the Waterfront; Best Foreign Film: Jigokumon (Japan). The ceremonies are held at the RKO Pantages Theatre, Hollywood, California, and NBC Century Theatre, New York City. The hosts are Bob Hope (in Hollywood) and Thelma Ritter (in New York).
1956The USSR conducts a nuclear test.
1957Actor, Paul Reiser, is born in New York, New York. He is best known for his starring role in the TV sitcom Mad About You. He appeared in the films Diner, Beverly Hills Cop, Aliens, Cross My Heart, The Marrying Man, Bye Bye Love, The Story of Us, and One Night at McCools.
1960U.S. Representative (of Massachusetts), Thomas O'Neill, wants the Federal Communications Commission to investigate all radio station employees involved in payola and report them to Congress.
1962Rapper, M.C. Hammer, is born Stanley Kirk Burrell in Oakland, California. He had his greatest commercial success and popularity from the late 1980s until the late 1990s. His biggest hits were U Can't Touch This and 2 Legit 2 Quit. He is known for his flashy dance movements, choreography, and Hammer pants.
1963France conducts an underground nuclear test at Ecker, Algeria.
1964The TV game show, Jeopardy!, debuts. It is hosted by Art Fleming.
1964Singer, Tracy Chapman, is born in Cleveland, Ohio. Her biggest hit was Fast Car.
1965A car bomb explodes in front of the U.S. Embassy in Saigon, killing 22 people and wounding 183 others.
1965Interviewer, Piers Morgan, is born Piers Stefan O'Meara in Newick, East Sussex, England. In England, Morgan worked as a writer and editor for several tabloids, including The Sun, News of the World, and The Daily Mirror. He began hosting Piers Morgan Live on CNN on January 17, 2011. The show replaced Larry King Live following King's retirement. Piers Morgan Live was cancelled by CNN in February 2014, and aired its final broadcast on March 28, 2014. He has appeared on the TV shows Britain's Got Talent, America's Got Talent, and The Celebrity Apprentice.
1966Artist, Maxfield Parrish, dies in Plainfield, New Hampshire, at age 95. His work is known for its distinctive saturated hues and idealized neo-classical imagery.
1967The Beatles meet photographer, Michael Cooper, at Chelsea Manor Studios dressed in colorful military style uniforms for the photographing of the Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band album cover. The backdrop for the photo session (designed by Peter Blake) utilizes cardboard cutouts and wax figures to represent the Beatles' personal heroes. The effigies featured include Edgar Allan Poe, Lenny Bruce, Vidal Sassoon, Marilyn Monroe, Laurel and Hardy, Bob Dylan, and Huntz Hall.
1968Singer, Celine Dion, is born Céline Marie Claudette Dion in Charlemagne, Quebec, Canada. She emerged as a teen star in the French-speaking world after her manager and future husband, René Angélil, mortgaged his home to finance her first record. Her hits include If You Asked Me To, The Power of Love, Because You Loved Me, and My Heart Will Go On.
1968Child actor, Bobby Driscoll, dies of heart failure and his body is found in a tenement in the East Village, Manhattan, New York, at age 31. In the mid-1950s, he became addicted to narcotics, and was sentenced to prison for illicit drug use. He is known for a large body of film and television performances from 1943 to 1960. Bobby served as animation model and provided the voice for the title role in Walt Disneys Peter Pan. He appeared in the films Song of the South, So Dear to My Heart, The Window, and Treasure Island. In 1950, he received an Academy Juvenile Award for outstanding performance in feature films.
1970Jazz artist, Miles Davis, releases the album, Bitches Brew.
1970The members of the rock group, Led Zeppelin, walk off stage during a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, concert, saying they won't play until the police stop intimidating the audience. Ten minutes later they resume the show.
1972The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.
1972The Easter Offensive begins after North Vietnamese forces cross into the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) of South Vietnam.
1973The U.S. military role in Vietnam comes to a formal end, when the last American prisoner is released and the last soldier is withdrawn from action.
1976The first Land Day protests are held in Israel/Palestine. Scholarship on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict recognizes Land Day as a pivotal event in the struggle over land and in the relationship of Arab citizens to the Israeli state and body politic. It is significant in that it was the first time since 1948 that Arabs in Israel organized a response to Israeli policies as a Palestinian national collective. An important annual day of commemoration in the Palestinian national political calendar ever since, it is marked not only by Arab citizens of Israel, but also by Palestinians all over the world.
1979Airey Neave, a British Member of Parliament, is killed by a car bomb as he exits the Palace of Westminster in London, England. The Irish National Liberation Army claims responsibility.
1979Jazz-pop singer, Norah Jones, is born Geetali Norah Jones Shankar in Brooklyn, New York. She has won numerous awards and has sold more than 50 million albums worldwide. She is the daughter of Indian sitar virtuoso, Ravi Shankar.
1981President Ronald Reagan is shot and wounded in the chest by John W. Hinckley, Jr. Hinckley said he did it to gain the attention of actress, Jodie Foster.
1981Elm Tree Books publishes Shout!: The True Story of The Beatles, the result of three years of research by journalist Philip Norman. It is promoted as the definitive biography of the group and is serialized in The Sunday Times. Paul McCartney will later refer to the book as shite, due to what he felt was an unflattering portrayal of him within its pages. The book has long been considered one of the best ever written on The Beatles.
1981DeWitt Wallace, founder of Reader's Digest, dies at age 91.
1982The STS-3 Mission is completed with the landing of the Space Shuttle Columbia at White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico.
1983The USSR conducts a nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh.
1986Actor, James Cagney, dies of a heart attack in Stanfordville, New York, at age 86. He is best known for his starring role in the film Yankee Doodle Dandy. He also appeared in the films The Public Enemy, Angels with Dirty Faces, White Heat, The West Point Story, Mister Roberts, The Seven Little Foys, Love Me or Leave Me, These Wilder Years, Man of a Thousand Faces, Shake Hands with the Devil, and Ragtime.
1987Sunflowers, a painting by Vincent Van Gogh, is sold at auction in London, England, for £24.75 million ($39.7 million).
1987The 59th Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: Platoon; Best Actor: Paul Newman for The Color of Money; Best Actress: Marlee Matlin for Children of a Lesser God; Best Director: Oliver Stone for Platoon; Best Foreign Film: The Assault (Netherlands). The ceremonies are held at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion, Los Angeles, California. The hosts are Chevy Chase, Paul Hogan, and Goldie Hawn.
1988Edgar Faure, Prime Minister of France, dies in Paris, France, at age 79.
1992The 64th Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: The Silence of the Lambs; Best Actor: Anthony Hopkins for The Silence of the Lambs; Best Actress: Jodie Foster for The Silence of the Lambs; Best Director: Jonathan Demme for The Silence of the Lambs; Best Foreign Film: Mediterraneo (Italy). The ceremonies are held at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion, Los Angeles, California. The host is Billy Crystal. The Silence of the Lambs becomes the first horror film to win Best Picture and the first film to be released on home video prior to winning the award.
1995Record producer, Paul A. Rothchild, dies of lung cancer in Hollywood, California, at age 59. He was a prominent producer of the late 1960s and 1970s, known for his work with The Doors, Janis Joplin, and The Paul Butterfield Blues Band.
1998Rolls-Royce is purchased by German automaker, BMW (British Motor Works), in a $570 million deal.
1999A jury in Portland, Oregon, orders Philip Morris to pay $81 million to the family of a man who died of lung cancer after smoking Marlboro cigarettes for four decades.
1999Gary Morton, film and television producer, dies of lung cancer in Palm Springs, California, at age 74. Morton helped his wife, Lucille Ball, form Lucille Ball Productions, served as executive producer of Here's Lucy (1968-1974), and was a co-executive producer of her last series Life With Lucy.
2002The Queen Mother of Great Britain dies in her sleep at Royal Lodge, Windsor, Berkshire, England, at age 101. At the time of her death, she was the longest-living member of the Royal Family in British history. In her later years she was a consistently popular, even when other members of the Royal Family were suffering from low levels of public approval. She continued an active public life until just a few months before her death.
2003Actor, Michael Jeter, dies of an epileptic seizure in Los Angeles, California, at age 50. He appeared in the films Hair, Ragtime, Zelig, The Money Pit, Dead Bang, Tango & Cash, Millers Crossing, The Fisher King, Waterworld, Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas, Patch Adams, The Green Mile, and Open Range.
2003Valentin Pavlov, 11th Prime Minister of the Soviet Union, dies in Moscow, Russian Federation, at age 65.
2004At a restaurant near Lake Tahoe, Nevada, a jazz trio house band are shocked when Paul McCartney steps onstage to join them for a rendition of Don't Get Around Much Anymore.
2004English-born journalist, Alistair Cooke, dies of lung cancer in New York, New York, at age 95. Along with his work in journalism, which included Letters from America and Alistair Cooke's America, he was well known as the host of PBS Masterpiece Theatre from 1971 to 1992.
2004Singer, Timi Yuro, dies of throat cancer in Las Vegas, Nevada, at age 63. Her biggest hits were Hurt and Whats a Matter Baby (Is It Hurting You).
2006The United Kingdom Terrorism Act 2006 becomes a law.
2007A crazed stalker is arrested in Peasmarsh, Sussex, England, after driving at high speed through Paul McCartney's security checkpoint and up to just a few yards from his mansion. As he is led away, the trespasser begins screaming "I must get to him!"
2009Twelve gunmen attack the Manawan Police Academy in Lahore, Pakistan.
2010Educator, Jaime Escalante, dies Roseville, California, at age 79. The Bolivian-born American high school teacher taught at Garfield High School. His story was told in the film Stand and Deliver.
2012The Spanish Government cuts 27 billion Euros from its budget.
2012Mastercard and Visa announce a massive breach in security with over ten million compromised credit card numbers.
2012Businessman, Granville Semmes, dies in New Orleans, Louisiana, at age 84. He founded 1-800-Flowers.
2013North Korea declares it is at war with South Korea
2013Record producer, Phil Ramone, dies from an aortic aneurysm in New York, New York, at age 79. Known as the "Pope of Pop," he won 14 Grammys throughout his five-decade career and worked with some of the industry's top artists, including Madonna, Bob Dylan, Burt Bacharach, Billy Joel, Aretha Franklin, Paul McCartney, and Frank Sinatra.
2016The operator of Japans destroyed Fukushima nuclear plant switches on a giant refrigeration system to create an unprecedented underground ice wall around its damaged reactors. Radioactive water has been flowing from the reactors, and other methods have failed to fully control it. The decontamination and decommissioning of the plant, damaged by a massive earthquake and tsunami in 2011, hinge of the success of the wall.
2016The Ukrainian Parliament votes to ban all Russian films released after January 1, 2014, saying the move is aimed at improving national security." More than 430 Russian films and TV series fall under the new measures.
2016The National Border Patrol Council (NBPC), which organizes some 16,500 border patrol agents, endorses Donald Trump for President of the United States, NBPC's first-ever endorsement in a presidential election.
2016Three-time Kentucky Derby winning jockey, Calvin Borel, announces his retirement.
PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Ivan II of Moscow; Beau Brummell; Vincent Van Gogh; Alaska; Ted Heath; Sonny Boy Williamson; John Astin, Warren Beatty; art for the stage musical Oklahoma!; a poster for The Lost Weekend; a scene from On the Waterfront; M.C. Hammer; Piers Morgan; Celine Dion; Norah Jones; James Cagney; Anthony Hopkins with his Oscar; the Queen Mother of Great Britain; Timi Yuro; and Phil Ramone.