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1972–Industrialist, J. Arthur Rank, dies at age 83. He founded Rank Organisation and by 1942 the company owned 619 cinemas. During the 1940s, the companies Rank controlled produced some of the finest British films of the period, including: The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp, Henry V, A Matter of Life and Death, Black Narcissus, and The Red Shoes. From the 1950s, fewer adventurous films were attempted and solidly commercial ventures, largely aimed at the family market, were made instead. During this period Carve Her Name with Pride and Victim were produced.

BC 87–Emperor Wu of Han dies in Chang'an, China, at age 69.

57–Emperor Guangwu of Han dies in China, at age 62. He was the restorer of the Han dynasty in 25 AD, and founder of the Later Han or Eastern Han (the restored Han dynasty).

500–Gwynllyw, Welsh king and religious figure, dies at age 79. According to medieval tradition, he was a feared warlord and raider who knew King Arthur, but later found religion and became a hermit founding St Woolos Cathedral in Newport. He was the father of one of the most revered Welsh saints, Saint Cadoc the Wise.

502–King Gundobad issues a new legal code (Lex Burgundionum) at Lyon that makes Gallo-Romans and Burgundians subject to the same laws.

845–Paris, France, is sacked by Viking raiders, probably under Ragnar Lodbrok, who collects a huge ransom in exchange for leaving.

1001–Sokkate, King of the Pagan dynasty of Burma, is born.

1058–Pope Stephen IX dies in Florence, Holy Roman Empire, at age 38.

1123–Emperor Shizong of Jin is born Wulu in Japan.

1187–Arthur I, Duke of Brittany, is born in Nantes, Brittany. His father, Geoffrey II of Brittany, died before he was born.

1368–Emperor Go-Murakami of Japan dies at age 40.

1430–The Ottoman Empire, under Murad II, captures Thessalonica from the Republic of Venice.

1461–Edward of York defeats Queen Margaret to become King Edward IV of England.

1500–Cesare Borgia is given the title of Captain General and Gonfalonier by his father, Rodrigo Borgia, after returning from his conquests in the Romagna.

1549–The city of Salvador da Bahia is founded. It is the first capital of Brazil.

1629–Alexis of Russia is born Alexei Mikhailovich in Moscow, Russia.

1632–The Treaty of Saint-Germain is signed, returning Quebec, Canada, to French control after the English had seized it in 1629.

1638–Swedish colonists establish the first settlement in Delaware, calling it New Sweden.

1683–A 15-year-old Japanese girl, Yaoya Oshichi, is burnt at the stake for an act of arson committed due to unrequited love.

1769–Nicolas Jean-de-Dieu Soult, 12th Prime Minister of France, is born in Saint-Amans-la-Bastide (present-day Saint-Amans-Soult, near Castres, France).

1790–John Tyler, the 10th U.S. President (1841-1845), is born in Charles City County, Virginia. Tyler had more children than any other President in history: a total of 15 children with his two wives.

1792–King Gustav III of Sweden dies after being shot in the back at a midnight masquerade ball at Stockholm's Royal Opera, at age 46. The assassin is Jacob Johan Anckarström, who was arrested the following morning, immediately confessing to the shooting.

1795–Ludwig von Beethoven debuts as a pianist in Vienna, Austria.

1798–The Republic of Switzerland is formed.

1799–Edward Smith-Stanley, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, is born Edward George Geoffrey Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, in Knowsley Park, Lancashire, England.

1804–Thousands of white people are massacred in Haiti, following a declaration by Governor General Jean-Jacques Dessalines.

1806–Construction is authorized for the Great National Pike, better known as the Cumberland Road, which will become the first U.S. federal highway.

1808–In Williamstown, Ontario, John Johnson gives the patent and grants 12 acres of land for the Williamstown Fair, the oldest continuously operating farm fair in Ontario.

1809–King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden, abdicates after a coup d'état.

1816–The 10th Dalai Lama is born in Lithang, Kham, Tibet. He was recognized as the reincarnation of Lungtok Gyatso, the 9th Dalai Lama, in 1820.

1817–King Louis XVIII of France plays boules against the British Prince Regent to celebrate the new alliance between the two nations following the Napoleonic Wars.

1827–The burial of Ludwig von Beethoven is attended by 20,000 in Vienna, Austria.

1831–In the Great Bosnian uprising, Bosniaks rebel against Turkey.

1847–Vera Cruz, Mexico, is captured by 12,000 U.S. troops.

1848–For the first time in recorded history, Niagara Falls stops flowing. An ice jam in the Niagara river above the rim of the falls causes the water to stop for 30 hours.

1849–The United Kingdom annexes the Punjab.

1857–Sepoy Mangal Pandey of the 34th Regiment, Bengal Native Infantry, mutinies against the East India Company's rule in India, inspiring the protracted Indian Rebellion of 1857.

1859–Oscar Mayer, Bavarian-born American meat packer, is born in Kösingen (present-day Neresheim), Württemberg, Germany.

1865–Federal forces, under Major General Philip Sheridan, move to flank Confederate forces. under Robert E. Lee. as the Appomattox Campaign begins during the American Civil War.

1867–The British North America Act establishes the Dominion of Canada comprising Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick.

1867–The U.S. Congress approves the Lincoln Memorial.

1867–Baseball player and manager, Cy Young, is born Denton True Young in Gilmore, Ohio. Young still holds the major league records for most career innings pitched (7,355), most career games started (815), and most complete games (749). He also retired with 316 losses, the most in MLB history.

1871–The Royal Albert Hall is opened in London, England, by Queen Victoria.

1874–Lou Henry Hoover, wife of Herbert Hoover, is born Lou Henry in Waterloo, Iowa. She was the 33rd First Lady of the United States.

1879–During the Anglo-Zulu War, British forces defeat 20,000 Zulus at the Battle of Kambula.

1882–The Knights of Columbus is founded by Father Michael J. McGivney in New Haven, Connecticut. The Knights of Columbus is the world's largest Catholic fraternal service organization. It was named in honor of the mariner, Christopher Columbus. Councils have been chartered in the United States (including some territories), Canada, the Philippines, Mexico, Poland, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Panama, the Bahamas, the Virgin Islands, Cuba, Guatemala, Guam, Saipan, South Korea, and on U.S. military bases around the world.

1886–Chemist, John Pemberton, brews the first batch of Coca-Cola in his back yard in Atlanta, Georgia.

1888–James E. Casey, founder of the United Parcel Service (UPS), is born in Pick Handle Gulch, Nevada. It was originally the American Messenger Company.

1891–French impressionist painter, Georges-Pierre Seurat, dies of an unknown infection in Paris, France, at age 31. He is revered for his creative drawing techniques and developing the painting style of Pointillism, in which the whole picture is made up of tiny points of pure color. He was instrumental in the establishment of Neo-impressionism. An ambitious last work, “The Circus,” remained unfinished at the time of his death.

1897–Japan adopts the Gold Standard.

1908–Actor, Arthur O'Connell, is born in New York, New York. He appeared in the films Picnic, The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit, Bus Stop, Man of the West, The Proud Ones, April Love, Gidget, Anatomy of a Murder, Operation Petticoat, Cimarron, Misty, Follow That Dream, 7 Faces of Dr. Lao, Kissin’ Cousins, The Great Race, The Monkey’s Uncle, Fantastic Voyage, The Reluctant Astronaut, The Power, and The Poseidon Adventure.

1909–Hillbilly pianist, Moon Mullican, is born Aubrey Wilson Mullican in Polk County, Texas. He was associated with the hillbilly boogie style which greatly influenced rockabilly.

1911–The M1911 .45 ACP pistol becomes the official U.S. Army side arm.

1912–British explorer, Robert Falcon Scott, dies in the Antarctica at age 43.

1913–Actor, Phil Foster, is born Fivel Feldman in Brooklyn, New York. He is best known for the role of Frank De Fazio on the TV sitcom Laverne & Shirley.

1916–Politician, Eugene McCarthy, is born in Watkins, Minnesota. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1949 to 1959, and the U.S. Senate from 1959 to 1971. His opposition to the Vietnam War led him to enter the 1968 presidential primaries He stunned the Democratic Party by nearly defeating the sitting President, Lyndon Johnson, in March 1968.

1918–Singer, Pearl (Mae) Bailey, is born in Newport News, Virginia. After appearing in vaudeville, she made her Broadway debut in St. Louis Woman in 1946. Her album, For Adults Only, was banned from airplay in 1959. She won a Tony Award for the title role in the all-black production of Hello, Dolly! in 1968. She appeared in the films Carmen Jones, The Certain Feeling, St. Louis Blues, All the Fine Young Cannibals, and The Landlord. She was married to musician, Louis Bellson.

1918–Sam Walton, billionaire CEO of Wal-Mart, is born Samuel Moore Walton in Kingfisher, Oklahoma. The first true Wal-Mart opened on July 2, 1962, in Rogers, Arkansas. Called the Wal-Mart Discount City store, it was located at 719 West Walnut Street.

1919–Actress, Eileen Heckart, is born Anna Eileen Herbert in Columbus, Ohio. She appeared in the films Miracle in the Rain, Somebody Up There Likes Me, Bus Stop, The Bad Seed, Up the Down Staircase, No Way to Treat a Lady, Butterflies Are Free, Zandy’s Bride, Burnt Offerings, Heartbreak Ridge, and The First Wives Club.

1927–The Sunbeam 1000hp breaks the land speed record at Daytona Beach, Florida.

1927–Political commentator, John (Joseph) McLaughlin, is born in Providence, Rhode Island. He produced and hosted the long-running political commentary series, The McLaughlin Group, as well as John McLaughlin's One On One.

1930–Heinrich Brüning is appointed German Reichskanzler.

1935–A severe dust storm blankets Amarillo, Texas, for 84 hours. For six hours visibility is near zero.

1936–In Germany, dictator Adolf Hitler, receives 99% of the votes in a referendum to ratify Germany's illegal reoccupation of the Rhineland. Due to Nazi propaganda he received 44.5 million votes out of the 45.5 million registered voters. All political parties and political liberty had been abolished in 1933.

1937–Billy Carter, brother of President Jimmy Carter, is born in Plains, Georgia.

1940–Singer, Astrud Gilberto, is born Astrud Evangelina Weinert in Salvador, Brazil. She is best known for her performance of the Grammy Award-winning song The Girl from Ipanema.

1941–Eighty percent of American AM radio stations change frequencies under the terms of the North American Regional Broadcasting Agreement (NARBA).

1941–During World War II, British Royal Navy and Royal Australian Navy forces defeat those of the Italian Regia Marina off the Peloponnesian coast of Greece, in the Battle of Cape Matapan.

1942–The Bombing of Lübeck is the first major success for the RAF Bomber Command against Germany, during World War II.

1943–Meat, butter, and cheese start to be rationed in America because of World War II shortages.

1943–Chad Allan, of The Guess Who, is born Allan Peter Stanley Kowbel in Winnipeg, Canada.

1943–Comedian, actor and writer, Eric Idle, is born in South Shields, Durham, England. As a member of Monty Python's Flying Circus, he played rogues, obsequious television hosts, and fussy old women. The Rutles (a parody of The Beatles) was his brainchild. He appeared in the films And Now for Something Completely Different, Monty Python and the Holy Grail, All You Need Is Cash, Monty Python's Life of Brian, Yellowbeard, National Lampoon’s European Vacation, The Adventures of Baron Munchausen, Nuns on the Run, Splitting Heirs, Dudley Do-Right, and Ella Enchanted.

1943–John Major, British Prime Minister (1990-1997), is born in Carshalton, Surrey, England.

1945–The German 4th Army is almost destroyed by the Soviet Red Army.

1945–Record producer, Speedy Keen, is born John David Percy Keen in Ealing, England. He is best known for his association with the rock band Thunderclap Newman. He wrote Something in the Air for the band, which reached #1 in the U.K. Singles chart.

1946–The Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México is founder. It is one of Mexico's leading universities.

1947–The Malagasy Uprising against French colonial rule takes place in Madagascar.

1947–Bobby Kimball, of Toto, is born Robert Troy Kimball in Orange, Texas.

1948–Actor, Bud Cort, is born Walter Edward Cox in New Rochelle, New York. He appeared in the films Up the Down Staircase, Sweet Charity, M*A*S*H, The Strawberry Statement, Brewster McCloud, Gas-s-s-s, Harold and Maude, Brave New World, Die Laughing, Hysterical, Electric Dreams, Bates Motel, The Chocolate War, Heat, Sweet Jane, Pollock, Made, The Life Aquatic With Steve Zissou, Arrested Development, and The Number 23.

1951–Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage.

1951–The 23rd Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: All About Eve; Best Actor: José Ferrer for Cyrano de Bergerac; Best Actress: Judy Holliday for Born Yesterday; Best Director: Joseph L. Mankiewicz for All About Eve; Best Foreign Film: The Walls of Malapaga (France-Italy). The ceremonies are held at the RKO Pantages Theatre, Hollywood, California. The host is Fred Astaire.

1954–A 7.0 earthquake hits near the south of Spain.

1954–Karen Anne Quinlan, comatose patient in a famous “right to die” case, is born in New Jersey.

1957–The New York, Ontario and Western Railway makes its final run. It is the first major U.S. railroad to be abandoned in its entirety.

1957–Actor, Christopher Lambert, is born Christophe Guy Denis Lambert in Great Neck, New Jersey. He is best known for the role of Tarzan in Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes. He appeared in the films The Telephone Bar, Subway, Highlander, The Sicilian, Knight Moves, Fortress, Mortal Kombat, Nine Months, and Beowulf. He was married to actresses Diane Lane and Sophie Marceau.

1959–Perry Farrell, of Jane's Addiction, is born Perry Bernstein in Queens, New York. Farrell created the touring festival Lollapalooza as a farewell tour for Jane's Addiction in 1991, and it has since evolved into an annual event.

1959–Barthelemy Boganda, the first President of the Central African Republic, is killed in a plane crash in Boukpayanga, Central African Republic, at age 48.

1961–The 23rd Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is ratified, allowing residents in Washington, D.C. to vote in Presidential elections.

1962–Arturo Frondizi, the President of Argentina, is overthrown in a military coup by Argentina's armed forces, ending an 11-day constitutional crisis.

1962–Jack Paar makes his final appearance as host of The Tonight Show.

1964–Model, Jill Goodacre (Connick), is born in Lubbock, Texas. She was one of Victoria's Secret's models in the 1980s and early 1990s. She is married to musician, Harry Connick, Jr.

1964–Supermodel, Elle MacPherson, is born Eleanor Nancy Gow in Killara, Sydney, Australia. She has appeared in the films Alice, Sirens, If Lucy Fell, Jane Eyre, The Mirror Has Two Faces, and The Edge.

1964–Chef, Ming Tsai, is born in Newport Beach, California. In 1998, Tsai, along with his wife Polly, opened his first restaurant, Blue Ginger, in Wellesley, Massachusetts. Ming also hosted a half-hour cooking show on the Food Network called East Meets West from 1998 to 2003. Ming is the author of four cookbooks: Blue Ginger, Simply Ming, Ming's Master Recipes, and Simply Ming: One-Pot Meals.

1965–Astronaut, William (Anthony) Oefelein, is born in Fort Belvoir, Virginia. He is a former test pilot instructor, naval officer, and NASA astronaut who, on his only spaceflight, piloted the STS-116 Space Shuttle mission.

1966–Boxer, Muhammad Ali, defeats Canadian George Chuvalo in Round 15 for the Heavyweight Boxing Championship.

1967–Rock singer, John Popper, of Blues Traveler, is born in Chardon, Ohio.

1968–Singer, Glen Campbell, becomes a television star when he debuts on his summer replacement variety show on CBS-TV.

1968–Blues guitarist, Sue Foley, is born in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

1968–Actress-singer, Lucy Lawless, is born Lucille Frances Ryan in Mount Albert, Auckland, New Zealand. She is best known for the starring role in the TV series Xena: Warrior Princess. She appeared in the films Within the Law, A Bitter Song, Spider-Man, EuroTrip, Boogeyman, and Bedtime Stories.

1971–U.S. Army Lt. William L. Calley, Jr. is convicted of murdering at least 22 Vietnamese civilians in the My Lai massacre and is sentenced to life in prison. Calley ends up spending three years under house arrest.

1971–A jury in Los Angeles, California, recommends the death penalty for Charles Manson and three female followers for the 1969 Tate-La Bianca murders. The sentences were later commuted.

1971–Robert (Lane) Gibbs, 28th White House Press Secretary, is born in Auburn, Alabama.

1972–Industrialist, J. Arthur Rank, dies at age 83. He founded Rank Organisation and by 1942 the company owned 619 cinemas. During the 1940s, the companies Rank controlled produced some of the finest British films of the period, including: The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp, Henry V, A Matter of Life and Death, Black Narcissus, and The Red Shoes. From the 1950s, fewer adventurous films were attempted and solidly commercial ventures, largely aimed at the family market, were made instead. During this period Carve Her Name with Pride and Victim were produced.

1973–The last United States combat soldiers leave South Vietnam, and Operation Barrel Roll, a covert American bombing campaign in Laos to stop communist infiltration of South Vietnam, ends.

1974–NASA's Mariner 10 becomes the first space probe to fly by Mercury.

1975–Led Zeppelin registers all six of its albums on the charts simultaneously, a feat never before made in rock history. For the record, coming after its chart-topping current release, Physical Graffiti, are: Led Zeppelin IV at #83, Houses of the Holy at #92, Led Zeppelin II at #104, Led Zeppelin at #116, and Led Zeppelin III at #124.

1976–Eight Ohio National Guardsmen are indicted for shooting four Kent State University students.

1976–The 48th Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest; Best Actor: Jack Nicholson for One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest; Best Actress: Louise Fletcher for One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest; Best Director: Milos Forman for One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest; Best Foreign Film: Dersu Uzala (Soviet Union). The ceremonies are held at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion, Los Angeles, California. The hosts are Walter Matthau, Robert Shaw, George Segal, Goldie Hawn, and Gene Kelly.

1978–Singer, Tina Turner, is officially divorced from her husband, Ike Turner.

1980–Prince Hamzah bin Al Hussein, of Jordan, is born in Amman, Jordan.

1980–Orchestra leader, Annunzio Mantovani, dies at a care home in Tunbridge Wells, Kent, England, at age 74. The book British Hit Singles & Albums states that he was "Britain's most successful album act before the Beatles... the first act to sell over one million stereo albums and have six albums simultaneously in the U.S. Top 30 in 1959.”

1981–The first London Marathon is held.

1981–The USSR conducts a nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh.

1981–A memorial service is held for John Lennon at Liverpool’s Anglican Cathedral, under protest from local Conservative politicians.

1981–Eric Williams, the first Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago, dies in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, at age 69.

1982–The Canada Act 1982 receives the Royal Assent from Queen Elizabeth II, setting the stage for the Queen of Canada to proclaim the Constitution Act.

1982–The 54th Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: Chariots of Fire; Best Actor: Henry Fonda for On Golden Pond; Best Actress: Katharine Hepburn for On Golden Pond; Best Director: Warren Beatty for Reds; Best Foreign Film: Mephisto (Hungary). The ceremonies are held at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion, Los Angeles, California. The host is Johnny Carson. Jane Fonda accepts the Oscar for her father, Henry Fonda, who is too ill to attend the ceremonies.

1982–German composer, Carl Orff, dies of cancer in Munich, Germany, at age 86. He is best known for his cantata Carmina Burana.

1984–In Maryland, The Baltimore Colts load its possessions onto 15 Mayflower moving trucks in the early morning hours and transfer its operations to Indianapolis, Indiana.

1985–The USSR conducts a nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh.

1985–Christos Sartzetakis is elected President of Greece.

1985–Jeanine Deckers, known as The Singing Nun, commits suicide by an overdose of barbiturates and alcohol in Wavre, Brabant, Belgium, at age 51. She acquired world fame in 1963, with the release of the French-language song Dominique, which topped the U.S. Billboard chart.

1986–The first legitimate Beatles records are released in the Soviet Union. Of course, bootleg recordings had been circulating there for years.

1986–Comic actor, Harry Ritz, of The Ritz Brothers, dies of pneumonia in San Diego, California, at age 78. Ritz, along with his brothers, influenced comedians such as Jerry Lewis, Sid Caesar, Mel Brooks, and Danny Kaye.

1987–American tourist, Ginger Meadows, is taken by a crocodile in the Prince Regent River, Western Australia.

1989–Junk bond king, Michael Milken, is indicted in New York for racketeering.

1989–I M Pei's modern, pyramidal entrance to the Louvre Museum opens in Paris, France.

1989–A private commercial rocket takes a sub-orbital test flight in New Mexico.

1989–The 61st Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: Rain Man; Best Actor: Dustin Hoffman for Rain Man; Best Actress: Jodie Foster for The Accused; Best Director: Barry Levinson for Rain Man; Best Foreign Film: Pelle the Conqueror (Denmark). The ceremonies are held at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles, California. There is no host.

1990–The Czechoslovak parliament is unable to reach an agreement on what to call the country after the fall of Communism, sparking the so-called Hyphen War.

1991–Political strategist, Lee Atwater, dies of a brain tumor at age 40. He was the Chairman of the Republican National Committee who also played the blues. Shortly before his death, he released his only album Red Hot & Blue: Lee Atwater and Friends. The “friends” included Isaac Hayes, Sam Moore, and B.B. King.

1992–Actor, Paul Henreid, dies of pneumonia in Santa Monica, California, at age 84. He appeared in the films Goodbye, Mr. Chips, Night Train to Munich, Now, Voyager, Casablanca, Between Two Worlds, Hollywood Canteen, Of Human Bondage, Rope of Sand, Stolen Face, Meet Me in Las Vegas, Ten Thousand Bedrooms, Never So Few, Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, and Operation Crossbow.

1992–Earl Spencer, father of Princess Diana, dies of a heart attack at Humana Hospital, Wellington, London, England, at age 68.

1993–Catherine Callbeck becomes Premier of Prince Edward Island. She is the first woman to be elected in a general election as premier of a Canadian province.

1993–The 65th Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: Unforgiven; Best Actor: Al Pacino for Scent of a Woman; Best Actress: Emma Thompson for Howards End; Best Director: Clint Eastwood for Unforgiven; Best Foreign Film: Indochine (France). The ceremonies are held at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion, Los Angeles, California. The host is Billy Crystal.

1999–The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above the 10,000 mark (10,006.78) for the first time, during the height of the dot-com bubble.

1999–A 6.8 earthquake strikes the Chamoli district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, killing 103 people.

1999–Blues singer, Joe Williams, dies of a respiratory ailment in Las Vegas, Nevada, at age 80. He became a star with Count Basie in the 1950s, and blossomed into a world famous balladeer in the following decades.

2001–A three-hour musical tribute is held at New York City's Radio City Music Hall in honor of The Beach Boys' guiding genius, Brian Wilson. Vocal tributes are made by Paul Simon, Elton John, Billy Joel, Ann and Nancy Wilson, The Go-Gos, Carly Simon, David Crosby, Wilson Phillips, Aimee Mann, and songwriter, Jimmy Webb. Brian Wilson performs Barbara Ann, Fun, Fun, Fun, and Surfin' U.S.A.

2001–Pianist, John Lewis, of the Modern Jazz Quartet, dies of prostate cancer in New York, New York, at age 80.

2002–In reaction to the Passover massacre two days earlier, Israel launches Operation Defensive Shield against Palestinian militants, as its largest military operation in the West Bank since the Six-Day War in 1967.

2004–Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia join NATO as full members.

2004–The Republic of Ireland becomes the first country in the world to ban smoking in all work places, including bars and restaurants.

2005–Rocker, Neil Young, enters a New York hospital to have a brain aneurysm removed.

2005–Attorney, Johnnie Cochran, dies in Los Feliz, Los Angeles, California, at age 67. He is best known for his leadership role in the defense and criminal acquittal of O.J. Simpson for the murder of his former wife, Nicole Brown Simpson, and her friend, Ronald Goldman.

2006–Singer, Tom Jones, is knighted by Queen Elizabeth II at Buckingham Palace in London, England.

2007–Eighteen-year-old Corey Williams is killed by a lightning bolt in Carbondale, Illinois, at Community High School's first home track meet of the season.

2010–Two female suicide bombers attack the Moscow Metro system at the peak of the morning rush hour, killing 40 people.

2013–Ten people are killed and 31 are injured by a blast outside the U.S. Consulate in Pakistan.

2013–At least 36 people are killed when a 16-floor building collapses in the commercial capital Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

2013–A landslide kills 66 people in China's Tibetan Autonomous Region near Lhasa.

2013–Coordinated bombings on Shiite mosques in Iraq kill 23 people.

2014–The first same-sex marriages are performed in England and Wales.

2016–Presidential candidate, Donald Trump, says he will no longer honor his pledge to support the eventual Republican Party pick for president because, "I have been treated very unfairly." And at the CNN Town Hall in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, candidates Ted Cruz and John Kasich also back away from earlier pledges to support the Republican nominee, whomever it might be.

2016–Actress, Patty Duke, dies of sepsis from a ruptured intestine in Couer d'Alene, Idaho, at age 69. She is best known for her starring role as identical cousins on the TV sitcom The Patty Duke Show. She appeared in the films The Goddess, 4D Man, The Miracle Worker, Bille, Valley of the Dolls, Me Natalie, You’ll Like My Mother, Prelude to a Kiss, and Bigger Than the Sky.

2017–The European Commission blocks the third attempt of the London Stock Exchange and Deutsche Börse merger, citing the danger of a "de facto monopoly in the crucial area of fixed income instruments."

2017–The United Kingdom invokes Article 50, beginning the formal process of Brexit.

2017–The body of Akbar Salubiro, a missing farmer on the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia, is found swallowed whole inside the belly of a 23-foot-long reticulated python.

2017–The Swedish Academy announces that American singer-songwriter, Bob Dylan, has finally agreed to accept his Nobel Prize in Literature at a private location in Stockholm, Sweden.

2017–A 6.9 earthquake hits the far eastern area of Russia.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Emperor Wu of Han of China; Nicolas Jean-de-Dieu Soult; Edward Smith-Stanley; the 10th Dalai Lama; a vintage ad for Oscar Mayer weiners; the emblem for The Knights of Columbus; Arthur O'Connell; Phil Foster; Eileen Heckart; Astrud Gilberto; Eric Idle; Bud Cort; Christopher Lambert; Jill Goodacre on the cover of Cosmopolitan magazine; Glen Campbell; J. Arthur Rank; Annunzio Mantovani; a scene fromm On Golden Pond; the Louvre Museum in Paris, France; Paul Henreid, Brian Wilson; Sir Tom Jones; and Patty Duke.

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