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1911–Playwright and author, Tennessee Williams, is born Thomas Lanier Williams III in Columbus, Mississippi. His works include The Glass Menagerie, A Streetcar Named Desire, Summer and Smoke, The Roman Spring of Mrs. Stone, The Rose Tatto, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, Baby Doll, Suddenly, Last Summer, The Fugitive Kind, Sweet Bird of Youth, Period of Adjustment, The Night of the Iguana, and Boom! A favorite of Hollywood, most of his works have been made into popular motion pictures.



590–Emperor Maurice proclaims his son, Theodosius, as co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire.

983–Iranian ruler, 'Adud al-Dawla, dies in Baghdad (present-day Iraq), at age 53.

1027–Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II as Holy Roman Emperor.

1031–Malcolm III of Scotland is born in Scotland. Malcolm's long reign, lasting 35 years, preceded the beginning of the Scoto-Norman age. He is the historical equivalent of the character of the same name in Shakespeare's Macbeth.

1130–Norwegian King, Sigurd the Crusader, dies in Oslo, Norway, at age 40.

1169–Saladin becomes the Emir of Egypt.

1199–Richard the Lionheart is fatally wounded by a crossbow bolt during a siege in France. He will die 11 days later.

1212–Sancho I of Portugal, dies in Coimbra, Kingdom of Portugal, at age 57.

1344–The Siege of Algeciras, one of the first European military engagements where gunpowder was used, comes to an end.

1351–Thirty Breton Knights call out and defeat thirty English Knights.

1484–William Caxton prints his translation of Aesop's Fables.

1552–Guru, Amar Das, becomes the Third Sikh Guru.

1636–Utrecht University is founded in the Netherlands.

1668–England takes control of Bombay, India.

1780–The British Gazette and Sunday Monitor, the first Sunday newspaper in Britain, is published.

1790–The U.S. Congress passes the Naturalization Act, which requires a two-year residency in order to become an American citizen.

1804–Territory of Orleans is organized in the Louisiana Purchase.

1804–The U.S. Congress orders relocation of Indians east of the Mississippi to Louisiana.

1812–An earthquake destroys Caracas, Venezuela, killing over 20,000 people.

1812–A political cartoon in The Boston Gazette coins the term "gerrymander" to describe oddly shaped electoral districts designed to help incumbents win reelection.

1827–German composer, Ludwig van Beethoven, dies in Vienna, Austria, at age 56. He dies during a thunderstorm and there was a peal of thunder at the moment of death. There is dispute about the cause of Beethoven's death: alcoholic cirrhosis, syphilis, infectious hepatitis, lead poisoning, sarcoidosis and Whipple's disease have all been proposed. Before and after his death, friends and visitors clipped locks of his hair, some of which have been preserved and subjected to additional analysis and have led to controversial assertions that Beethoven was accidentally poisoned to death by excessive doses of lead-based treatments administered under instruction from his doctor. An autopsy revealed significant liver damage, which may have been due to heavy alcohol consumption. Beethoven was a crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western art music, and he remains one of the most famous and influential of all composers. His compositions include nine symphonies, five concertos for piano, 32 piano sonatas, and 16 string quartets. His best known piece of music is his 5th Symphony, simply called Beethoven’s 5th.

1830–The Book of Mormon is published in Palmyra, New York.

1839–The first Henley Royal Regatta is held.

1859–The first sighting of Vulcan is made. It is a planet thought to orbit inside Mercury. It was later determined to be an asteroid.

1868–Fuad I of Egypt, is born in Giza Palace, Cairo, Khedivate of Egypt.

1872–Thomas J. Martin patents the fire extinguisher.

1874–Poet, Robert Frost, is born in San Francisco, California. Although he will be proclaimed “the Voice of New England,” he first sees a New England farm at the age of 10. He lived in England for three years, where he published his first two books of poetry, and came back to America a popular favorite. His works include “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening,” “The Road Not Taken,” “The Death of the Hired Man,” and “Mending Wall.”

1876–Prince William of Albania is born Wilhelm Friedrich Heinrich at Neuwied Castle in Neuwied, German Empire.

1880–Writer and businessman, Duncan Hines, is born in Bowling Green, Kentucky. While a traveling salesman, he published a list of his favorite restaurants and dishes called Adventures in Good Eating. He also wrote a newspaper column and became a favorite American restaurant and lodging critic. But he is probably best known for his licensing of the Duncan Hines name for ice cream, cake mixes, and other products.

1881–Thessaly is freed and becomes part of Greece once more.

1881–Italian fashion designer, Guccio Gucci, is born in Florence, Italy. Gucci worked as a craftsman, taking pride in his reputation for quality work. In 1921, he founded the House of Gucci, a saddlery, ultimately expanding into leather bags for horsemen. By 1938, Gucci expanded his business to Rome, employing his sons Aldo, Vasco, and Rodolfo. In 1951, he opened a store in Milan, Italy, followed two years later by a store in New York City.

1885–The Eastman Film Company manufactures the first commercial motion picture film.

1885–The Métis people of the District of Saskatchewan, under Louis Riel, begin the North-West Rebellion against Canada.

1885–Businessman, Anson Stager, dies in Chicago, Illinois, at age 59. He co-founded Western Union and was the first president of Western Electric Manufacturing Company.

1886–The first cremation takes place in England.

1888–Barghash bin Said of Zanzibar dies at age 51. He is credited with building much of the infrastructure of Stone Town, including piped water, public baths, a police force, roads, parks, hospitals, and large administrative buildings, such as the Bait el-Ajaib (House of Wonders).

1892–Poet, Walt Whitman, dies of pleurisy in Camden, New Jersey, at age 72. He was an essayist, journalist, and humanist. Often called the “Father of Free Verse.” He became a revolutionary figure in American literature after the publication of Leaves of Grass. Constantly revising and augmenting this work, he receives the final, ninth edition on his deathbed.

1904–Mythologist, Joseph (John) Campbell, is born in White Plains, New York. He was a writer and lecturer, best known for his work in comparative mythology and comparative religion. His work is vast, covering many aspects of the human experience. His philosophy is often summarized by his phrase, "Follow your bliss."

1905–Pyschiatrist, Viktor (Emil) Frankl, is born in Leopoldstadt, Vienna. A Holocaust survivor, Frankl was the founder of logotherapy, which is a form of existential analysis, the "Third Viennese School of Psychotherapy." His best-selling book, Man's Search for Meaning, chronicles his experiences as a concentration camp inmate, which led him to discover the importance of finding meaning in all forms of existence, even the most brutal ones, and thus, a reason to continue living.

1910–The U.S. government forbids immigration of criminals, anarchists, paupers, the sick.

1911–Following the publication of her first novel, The Voyage Out, Virginia Woolf suffers a nervous breakdown.

1911–Playwright and author, Tennessee Williams, is born Thomas Lanier Williams III in Columbus, Mississippi. His works include The Glass Menagerie, A Streetcar Named Desire, Summer and Smoke, The Roman Spring of Mrs. Stone, The Rose Tatto, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, Baby Doll, Suddenly, Last Summer, The Fugitive Kind, Sweet Bird of Youth, Period of Adjustment, The Night of the Iguana, and Boom! A favorite of Hollywood, most of his works have been made into popular motion pictures.

1913–Ten-inch rains over a wide area of the Ohio River Basin flood cities in Ohio, drowning 467 people, and causing $147 million in damage.

1914–Military General, William (Childs) Westmoreland, is born in Saxon, South Carolina. He was a U.S. Army General, who most notably commanded U.S. forces during the Vietnam War from 1964 to 1968.

1915–The Vancouver Millionaires sweep the Ottawa Senators 3-0, to win the Stanley Cup Finals in the first championship played between the Pacific Coast Hockey Association and the National Hockey Association.

1916–Film producer, Mort Abrahams, is born in New York, New York. His work in television includes Tales of Tomorrow, The Third Man, Route 66, and The Man from U.N.C.L.E. His films include Doctor Dolittle, Planet of the Apes, Goodbye, Mr. Chips, The Homecoming, and Luther.

1916–Actor, Sterling Hayden, is born Sterling Relyea Walter in Montclair, New Jersey. He appeared in the films The Asphalt Jungle, Journey Into Light, The Star, So Big, Prince Valiant, Johnny Guitar, Suddenly, The Killing, Terror in a Texas Town, Dr. Strangelove, Loving, The Godfather, The Long Goodbye, 1900, King of the Gypsies, Winter Kills, The Outsider, and Nine to Five.

1917–Bluesman, Rufus Thomas, Jr., is born in Cayce, Mississippi. He was a rhythm and blues, funk and soul singer, who recorded on Sun Records in the 1950s and on Stax Records in the 1960s and 1970s. He was the father of soul singer, Carla Thomas.

1919–Character actor, Strother Martin, is born Strother Douglas Martin, Jr. in Kokomo, Indiana. He is best known for the role of the prison captain in the 1967 film Cool Hand Luke, in which he uttered the famous line, "What we've got here is failure to communicate." He appeared in the films The Asphalt Jungle, The Magnetic Monster, A Star Is Born, Strategic Air Command, Attack!, The Shaggy Dog, The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance, McLintock!, Shenanadoah, The Sons of Katie Elder, Harper, Nevada Smith, True Grit, The Wild Bunch, Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, Red Sky at Morning, Rooster Cogburn, Slap Shot, The End, and The Champ.

1920–F. Scott Fitzgerald's first novel, This Side of Paradise, is published, selling 20,000 copies within a week. At 23, the author is the youngest novelist ever published by Scribner's. Fitzgerald's girlfriend, Zelda Sayre, had told him she wouldn't marry him until he had established himself as a writer. Eight days after this publication, Scott and Zelda were married.

1921–Costume designer, Julie Harris, is born in London, England. Harris played a major role in capturing the look of “Swinging London” on film in the 1960s. She dressed The Beatles for both A Hard Day’s Night and Help! (She later said, “I must be one of the few people who can claim they have seen John, Paul, George and Ringo naked.”) She also she worked with actresses Jayne Mansfield, Joan Crawford, Bette Davis, and Lauren Bacall.

1921–George Jefferson, CEO of British Telecom, is born.

1922–The German Social Democratic Party is founded in Poland.

1923–Bob Elliot, of Bob and Ray, is born Robert Brackett Elliott in Boston, Massachusetts. On television, the duo hosted The Bob and Ray Show from 1951 to 1953. He is best known for the character of Wally Ballou, a mild-mannered, but indefatigable radio reporter. Comedian-actor, Chris Elliott, is his son.

1923–French actress, Sarah Bernhardt, dies from uremia due to kidney failure in Paris, France, at age 78. She was referred to as "the most famous actress the world has ever known." Bernhardt made her fame on the stages of France in the 1870s, at the beginning of the Belle Epoque period, and was soon in demand in Europe and the Americas. She developed a reputation as a serious dramatic actress, earning the nickname "The Divine Sarah."

1925–Jazz saxophonist, James Moody, is born in Savannah, Georgia. He is best known for his hit Moody's Mood for Love, an improvisation based on I'm in the Mood for Love.

1927–The Gaumont-British Film Corporation is established.

1930–Sandra Day O'Connor, first female U.S. Supreme Court Justice, is born in El Paso, Texas.

1930–Poet, Gregory Nunzio Corso, is born in New York, New York. Left with foster parents when his 18-year-old immigrant mother returned to Italy, he grew up a juvenile delinquent. Convicted of theft at 17, he was introduced to literature while in prison. He later met Allen Ginsberg, and published his first volume of verse, The Vestal Lady on Brattle, in 1955. Corso is considered one of only seven “original” Beat writers.

1931–SwissAir is founded as the national airline of Switzerland.

1931–The Ho Chi Minh Communist Youth Union is founded in Vietnam.

1931–Actor, Leonard (Simon) Nimoy, Mr. Spock of Star Trek, is born in Boston, Massachusetts. He is best known for the role of Mr. Spock on the sci-fi TV series Star Trek. Nimoy's fame as Spock is so huge that both of his autobiographies, I Am Not Spock (1975) and I Am Spock (1995), were written from the viewpoint of sharing his experiences of the character. He was cast in many TV shows including Dragnet, Highway Patrol, Sea Hunt, Bonanza, Gunsmoke, The Twilight Zone, Rawhide, Perry Mason, The Outer Limits, Columbo, and T.J. Hooker. He appeared in the films Queen for a Day, Rhubarb, Zombies of the Stratosphere, Them!, The Brain Eaters, Deathwatch, Invasion of the Body Snatchers, A Woman Called Golda, and Brave New World.

1932–Engineer, Henry M. Leland, dies in Detroit, Michigan, at age 89. He was a machinist, inventor, and automotive entrepreneur. He founded the two premier American luxury automotive marques, Cadillac and Lincoln.

1934–The driving test is introduced in the United Kingdom.

1934–Actor, Alan (Wolf) Arkin, is born in Brooklyn, New York. He appeared in the films The Russians Are Coming, The Russians Are Coming, Woman Times Seven, Wait Until Dark, The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter, Popi, Catch-22, Last of the Red Hot Lovers, Freebie and the Bean, Hearts of the West, The Seven-Per-Cent Solution, The In-Laws, Simon, Joshua Then and Now, Bad Medicine, Edward Scissorhands, Havana, Glengarry Glen Ross, Grosse Pointe Blank, Little Miss Sunshine, Marley & Me, and Argo. His son is actor, Adam Arkin.

1935–Politician, Mahmoud Abbas, is born in Safed, Mandatory Palestine (present-day Israel). He was the second President of the State of Palestine and Palestinian National Authority.

1937–Spinach growers of Crystal City, Texas, erect a statue of the cartoon character "Popeye."

1940–Actor, James (Edmund) Caan, is born in the Bronx, New York. He appeared in the films Lady in a Cage, Red Line 7000, El Dorado, Games, Countdown, The Rain People, Rabbit, Run, Brian’s Song, The Godfather, Slither, Cinderella Liberty, Freebie and the Bean, Funny Lady, Rollerball, A Bridge Too Far, Comes a Horseman, Chapter Two, Hide in Plain Sight, Thief, Kiss Me Goodbye, Gardens of Stone, Alien Nation, Misery, For the Boys, Honeymoon in Vegas, Flesh and Bone, and Bottle Rocket.

1940–Politician, Nancy Pelosi, is born Nancy Patricia D'Alesandro in Baltimore, Maryland. She was the 60th Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives. Pelosi is the first woman, the first Californian, and first Italian-American to lead a major party in the U.S. Congress.

1942–The first female prisoners arrive at Auschwitz concentration camp in German-occupied Poland.

1942–Writer, Erica Jong, is born Erica Mann in New York, New York. She is best known for her 1973 novel Fear of Flying. The book was controversial for its attitudes towards female sexuality and figured prominently in the development of second-wave feminism.

1943–Investigative reporter, Bob Woodward, is born Robert Upshur Woodward in Geneva, Illinois. He has worked for The Washington Post since 1971 as a reporter. In 1972, Woodward was teamed with fellow reporter, Carl Bernstein, and the two did much of the original news reporting on the Watergate scandal. This led to numerous government investigations and the eventual resignation of President Richard Nixon. Gene Roberts, the former managing editor of The New York Times, has called the work of Woodward and Bernstein "perhaps the single greatest reporting effort of all time."

1944–Singer, Diana Ross, is born Diane Ernestine Earle Ross in Detroit, Michigan. As lead singer of The Supremes she had a string of hits for the Motown label during the 1960s, including Where Did Our Love Go? and Come See About Me. Following her departure from The Supremes in 1970, Ross released her debut solo album, Diana Ross, which contained the hits Reach Out and Touch (Somebody's Hand) and Ain't No Mountain High Enough. She has appeared in the films Lady Sings the Blues, Mahogany, The Wiz, Out of Darkness, and Double Platinum.

1945–The Battle of Iwo Jima ends as the island is officially secured by American forces.

1945–David Lloyd George, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, dies of cancer in Ty Newydd, Llanystumdwy, Caernarfonshire, Wales, at age 82.

1946–Child actor, Johnny Crawford, is born John Ernest Crawford in Los Angeles, California. He is best known for the role of Mark McCain in the popular Western TV series, The Rifleman, from 1958 to 1963. He was also one of the original Mouseketeers on Walt Disney’s The Mickey Mouse Club. As a singer, he had hits with Cindy's Birthday and Your Nose is Gonna Grow. He appeared in the films Courage of Black Beauty, The Space Children, Indian Paint, Village of the Giants, The Restless Ones, El Dorado, The Naked Ape, and The Great Texas Dynamite Chase.

1947–Dar (Allen) Robinson, movie stuntman, is born in Los Angeles, California. He appeared in the films Papillon, The Towering Inferno, Rollerball, Logan’s Run, Firstborn, Turk 182!, and Lethal Weapon.

1948–Richard Tandy, keyboard player for Electric Light Orchestra, is born in Birmingham, England. His assortment of keyboards (including Mini Moog, clavinet, mellotron, and piano) was an important ingredient in the group's sound.

1948–Stephen Tyler, lead vocalist of Aerosmith, is born Steven Victor Tallarico in Yonkers, New York. During his high-energy performances, he usually dresses in bright, colorful outfits with his trademark scarves hanging from his microphone stand. In the 1970s, the band released the hard rock albums as Toys in the Attic and Rocks. His daughter is actress, Liv Tyler.

1949–Actress, Vicki Lawrence, is born Victoria Ann Axelrad in Inglewood, California. She is best known for her appearances on The Carol Burnett Show and the starring role in the TV sitcom Mama’s Family. In 1973, she had a hit with The Night the Lights Went Out in Georgia.

1950–Country singer, Ronnie McDowell, is born Ronald Dean McDowell in Portland, Tennessee. He is best known for his 1977 song The King Is Gone, a tribute to Elvis Presley, who had recently died. From that single onward, McDowell has charted more than 30 Top 40 hits on the Billboard Country Music chart. Noted for a singing voice that resembled Presley's, McDowell was commissioned to cover a number of Elvis' songs for the soundtrack to 1979 made-for-TV Presley bio film Elvis: Kurt Russell, portraying Presley, lip-synched to McDowell's vocals.

1950–Singer, Teddy Pendergrass, is born Theodore DeReese Pendergrass in Kingstree, South Carolina. He first rose to fame as lead singer of Harold Melvin & the Blue Notes in the 1970s, before a successful solo career at the end of the decade. In 1982, he was severely injured in an auto accident, resulting in his being paralyzed from the chest down. He subsequently founded the Teddy Pendergrass Alliance, a foundation that helps those with spinal cord injuries.

1950–Comedian-actor, Martin (Hayter) Short, is born in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. He is best known for his comedy work on the TV shows SCTV and Saturday Night Live. One of his best known characters is the nervous and eccentric Ed Grimley. He appeared in the films Lost and Found, Three Amigos, Innerspace, Cross My Heart, Three Fugitives, The Big Picture, Father of the Bride, Clifford, Mars Attacks!, and Jiminy Glick in Lalawood.

1954–The U.S. conducts an atmospheric nuclear test at Bikini Island.

1957–TV host, Leeza (Kim) Gibbons, is born in Hartsville, South Carolina. She has hosted Entertainment Tonight and Extra, as well as Leeza, her own syndicated talk show, which ran from June 1993 to September 2000.

1957–Édouard Herriot, Prime Minister of France, dies in Lyon, France, at age 84.

1958–The United States Army launches Explorer 3.

1958–The African Regroupment Party is launched at a meeting in Paris, France.

1958–The 30th Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: The Bridge on the River Kwai; Best Actor: Alec Guinness for The Bridge on the River Kwai; Best Actress: Joanne Woodward for The Three Faces of Eve; Best Director: David Lean for The Bridge on the River Kwai; Best Foreign Film: Nights of Cabiria (Italy). The ceremonies are held at RKO Pantages Theatre, Hollywood, California. The hosts are Bob Hope, Rosalind Russell, David Niven, James Stewart, Jack Lemmon, and Donald Duck (voice of Clarence Nash).

1959–Detective writer, Raymond Chandler, dies of pneumonia in La Jolla, California, at age 70. His first novel, The Big Sleep, was published in 1939. Some of Chandler's novels are considered important literary works, and three are often considered masterpieces: Farewell, My Lovely (1940), The Little Sister (1949), and The Long Goodbye (1953).

1960–The TV special, ”Welcome Home Elvis,” hosted by Frank Sinatra, is recorded at the Fontainebleau Hotel in Miami Beach, Florida. The King of Rock 'n' Roll had recently been discharged from the Army, which explains the theme of the show. It's the last time Elvis will appear on TV for eight years.

1960–Actress, Jennifer Grey, is born in New York, New York. She is best known for the role of Baby in Dirty Dancing. She appeared in the films Ferris Bueller’s Day Off, Reckless, Red Dawn, The Cotton Club, and American Flyers. She is the daughter of actor, Joel Grey.

1962–Marjorie Colton, the inventor of wax paper, dies at age 64.

1964–Funny Girl, starring Barbra Streisand, opens at the Winter Garden Theater in New York City.

1967–Ten thousand people gather for the Central Park Be-In in New York City.

1968–Country singer, Kenny Chesney, is born Kenneth Arnold Chesney in Gibbs, Tennessee. He has produced more than 30 "Top 10" singles on the Billboard Hot Country Songs chart, and has sold over 30 million albums worldwide.

1968–James (Yoshinobu) Iha, of The Smashing Pumpkins, is born in Chicago, Illinois.

1969–A nuclear reactor in Dodewaard, Netherlands, begins operation.

1970–The U.S. announces its 500th nuclear explosion since 1945. In the 1950s, the atomic bomb was a terror that all Baby Boomer kids lived with on a daily basis. In school, they practiced “duck and cover” strategies and were fearful of planes that would fly overhead.

1970–Golden Gate Park Conservatory, in San Francisco, California, is made a city landmark.

1970–Jim Morrison and Tom Baker appear in Federal Court in Phoenix, Arizona, to face two counts of “assaulting, threatening, intimidating and interfering with the performance of a flight crew,” stemming from an incident of the previous November.

1971–East Pakistan declares its independence from Pakistan to form the People's Republic of Bangladesh, starting the Bangladesh Liberation War.

1971–Parts of northern and central Georgia experience their worst snow and ice storm since 1935. A two-day power outage ruins two million eggs at poultry hatches.

1973–For the first time, women are allowed onto the floor of the London Stock Exchange.

1973–Computer scientist, Larry Page, is born Lawrence Page in East Lansing, Michigan. He is co-founder and CEO of Google. Page is the inventor of PageRank, Google's most well-known search ranking algorithm.

1973–English playwright, Noel Coward, dies of heart failure at at his home, Firefly Estate in Jamaica, at age 73. He produced several films based on his own scripts, including In Which We Serve and Brief Encounter.

1974–The Romanian communist party names party leader Nicolae Ceausescu as President.

1974–Gaura Devi leads a group of 27 women of Laata Village, Henwalghati, Garhwal Himalayas, to form circles around trees to stop them from being felled. This gives rise to the Chipko Movement in India.

1974–Boxer, George Foreman, knocks out Ken Norton in Round 2 for the Heavyweight Boxing Championship.

1975–The Biological Weapons Convention comes into force.

1975–The Altair 8800 personal computer goes on the market.

1975–Tommy, the film based on the rock opera by the group, The Who, has its premiere in London, England.

1976–Queen Elizabeth II sends the first royal email, from the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment.

1976–Riding near the scene of a multi-car pileup in Memphis, Tennessee, Elvis Presley jumps out of his limo, displays his honorary police captain's badge, and attempts to help the victims before police and rescue teams arrive.

1976–Actress, Amy Smart, is born Amy Lysle Smart in Topanga, California. She has appeared in the films High Voltage, Starship Troopers, Starstruck, Varsity Blues, Road Trip, Rat Race, The Butterfly Effect, Win a Date with Tad Hamilton!, Starsky & Hutch, The Best Man, and The Reunion.

1976–Wings guitarist, Jimmy McCullough, breaks a finger when he slips in his hotel bathroom in Paris, France, after the last show of the band's European tour. The injury pushes back the start of Paul McCartney's tour of the U.S. by three weeks.

1978–Four days before the scheduled opening of Japan's Narita International Airport, a group of protestors destroy much of the equipment in the control tower with Molotov cocktails.

1979–Anwar al-Sadat, Menachem Begin, and President Jimmy Carter sign the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty in Washington, D.C.

1981–The Social Democratic Party is founded in the United Kingdom.

1981–A jury in Los Angeles, California, awards entertainer, Carol Burnett, $1.6 million from The National Enquirer, for an article she charged was libelous. The award was later reduced, and the two parties settled out of court.

1982–Groundbreaking ceremonies for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial take place in Washington, D.C.

1983–The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1985–Actress, Keira (Christina) Knightley, is born in Teddington, London, England. She began acting as a child on television and made her film debut in 1995. She has appeared in the films Innocent Lies, Coming Home, Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace, The Hole, Bend It Like Beckham, Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl, Love Actually, The Jacket, Pride & Prejudice, Silk, Atonement, Seeking a Friend for the End of the World, Anna Karenina, and The Imitation Game.

1986–Jessica McClure is born in Midland, Texas. She became famous at the age of 18 months after falling into a well in her aunt's backyard on October 14, 1987. Rescuers worked for 58 hours to free her from the eight-inch well casing 22 feet below the ground. The story gained worldwide attention and later became the subject of a 1989 TV movie Everybody's Baby: The Rescue of Jessica McClure.

1986–Photographer, Dezo Hoffman, dies of a heart attack in London, England, at age 73. Hoffman befriended The Beatles when they first came to London, and he took more photos of the group during their early career than any other photographer. Hoffman’s Beatles photos were eventually acquired by Apple. Dezo's archive of approximately one million photographs of countless pop musicians and entertainment personalities was acquired by Rex Features.

1990–The 62nd Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: Driving Miss Daisy; Best Actor: Daniel Day-Lewis for My Left Foot; Best Actress: Jessica Tandy for Driving Miss Daisy; Best Director: Oliver Stone for Born on the Fourth of July; Best Foreign Film: Cinema Paradiso (Italy). The ceremonies are held at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion, Los Angeles, California. The host is Billy Crystal. After the negative reception received from the preceding year's ceremony, AMPAS created an Awards Presentation Review Committee to evaluate and determine why the telecast earned such a negative reaction from the media and the entertainment industry. Newly elected AMPAS President, Karl Malden, commented on the last year's telecast, “Some of the people in the Academy felt the show got a little out of control.” Former Directors Guild of America President, Gil Cates, who served as head of the committee, was subsequently hired by the Academy to produce the 1990 telecast. Malden explained the decision to hire Cates saying, “Cates, a veteran film and TV director known for his tasteful work in both media will attempt to rectify the damage the last Oscar show did to the Academy's reputation.” Most likely, the best decision that was made was to hire Billy Crystal as the host.

1990–Fashion designer, Halston, dies of Aids-related cancer in San Francisco, California, at age 57. His designs were worn by Lauren Bacall, Bianca Jagger, Gene Tierney, and Elizabeth Taylor, giving him the reputation of designing for the jet set. He also created the minimalist, clean designs, often made of cashmere or ultrasuede, that were popular fashion wear in mid-1970s discotheque scene.

1991–Local self-government is restored after three decades of centralized control in South Korea.

1991–Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, and Paraguay sign the Treaty of Asunción, establishing Mercosur, the South Common Market.

1991–Five South Korean boys, nicknamed the “Frog Boys,” disappear while hunting for frogs and are murdered. The case remains unsolved.

1995–Rapper, Easy-E, dies due to complications from AIDS in Los Angeles, California, at age 31.

1996–The International Monetary Fund approves a $10.2 billion loan for Russia.

1996–Politician, Edmund S. Muskie, dies of congestive heart failure in Washington, D.C., at age 81. He served as Governor of Maine from 1955 to 1959, as a member of the U.S. Senate from 1959 to 1980, and as Secretary of State under Jimmy Carter from 1980 to 1981. Muskie was the Democratic nominee for Vice President in the 1968 presidential election, and was a candidate for the Democratic nomination for President in 1972.

1996–Electronic engineer, David Packard, dies in Stanford, California, at age 83. He was a co-founder, with William Hewlett, of Hewlett-Packard Company. The company grew into the world's largest producer of electronic testing and measurement devices. It also became a major producer of calculators, computers, and laser and ink jet printers.

1997–Thirty-nine bodies are found in the Heaven's Gate mass suicides. The cult members had hoped to reach what they believed was an alien space craft following Comet Hale-Bopp. Heaven's Gate was an American UFO religious Millenarian group based in San Diego, California, founded in the early 1970s and led by Marshall Applewhite and Bonnie Nettles.

1997–Harold Melvin, of Harold Melvin and The Blue Notes, dies of a stroke at age 57. The group’s biggest hit was If You Don’t Know Me By Now.

1998–In the Oued Bouaicha massacre in Algeria, 52 people are killed with axes and knives, 32 of them children under the age of two.

1999–The "Melissa worm" infects Microsoft word processing and e-mail systems around the world.

1999–A jury in Michigan finds Dr. Jack Kevorkian guilty of second-degree murder for administering a lethal injection to a terminally ill man.

1999–The Amsterdam Hilton, site of John Lennon and Yoko Ono's March 1969 Bed-In For Peace, opens an exhibition of John Lennon's art to celebrate the 30th anniversary of the Bed-In. This is the largest exhibition of Lennon's art ever shown, and it includes pieces from the “Bag One” series, which when first exhibited in London in 1970, were confiscated by police as being obscene. Some of Lennon's handwritten lyrics are also on display. Half of the works in the exhibit are for sale, with one piece to be raffled for charity. The exhibition ran through April 5th.

2000–Vladimir Putin is elected the second President of Russia.

2000–The 72nd Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: American Beauty; Best Actor: Kevin Spacey for American Beauty; Best Actress: Hilary Swank for Boys Don't Cry; Best Director: Sam Mendes for American Beauty; Best Foreign Film: All About My Mother (Spain). The ceremonies are held at the Shrine Auditorium, Los Angeles, California. The host is Billy Crystal.

2000–Writer, Alex Comfort, dies in Oxfordshire, England, at age 80. He was a British scientist and physician best known for his nonfiction sex manual The Joy of Sex (1972).

2002–Randy Castillo, drummer with Mötley Crüe, dies of cancer at age 51.

2004–Singer, Jan Berry, of Jan and Dean, dies after suffering a seizure at age 62. The duo’s hits include The Little Old Lady from Pasadena, Dead Man’s Curve, and Surf City.

2004–Actress, Jan Sterling, dies from a series of strokes in Los Angeles, California, at age 82. She appeared in the films Johnny Belinda, Caged, Union Station, Ace in the Hole, Flesh and Fury, The High and the Mighty, Female on the Beach, 1984, High School Confidential, Love in a Goldfish Bowl, and The Incident.

2005–The Taiwanese government calls on one million Taiwanese to demonstrate in Taipei, in opposition to the Anti-Secession Law of the People's Republic of China. Around 200,000 to 300,000 attend the demonstration.

2005–James Callaghan, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, dies of lobar pneumonia in Ringmer, East Sussex, England, at age 92.

2010–The ROKS Cheonan sinks off the west coast of South Korea near Baengnyeong Island in the Yellow Sea, killing 46 seamen.

2011–Computer engineer, Paul Baran, dies in Palo Alto, California, at age 84. He was an internet pioneer who helped create the technical underpinnings of Arpanet.

2011–Attorney, Geraldine Ferraro, dies of cancer in Boston, Massachusetts, at age 75. She was a Democratic Party politician, and a member of the U.S. House of Representatives. In 1984, she was the first female Vice Presidential candidate on the ticket with Walter Mondale.

2014–A massive fire breaks out in Back Bay, Boston, killing two firefighters and injuring at least 18 people.

2015–A lioness kept as a pet in Pakistan gives birth to five cubs, double the usual two-to-three-cub litters among lions. A Pakistani wildlife department official said it is legal to keep the animals as pets as long as they do not endanger anyone.

2016–The Pentagon announces the death of Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) finance minister and deputy leader, Abu Ala al-Afri.

2016–The Hokkaido Shinkansen opens in Japan. It is a high-speed rail line constructed between Aomori Prefecture in Honshu, and Hokkaido, through the undersea Seikan Tunnel.

2016–Netflix acknowledges it's been slowing its video transmission on wireless mobile carriers around the world, including Verizon and AT&T, for five years to "protect consumers from exceeding mobile data caps." The company told The Wall Street Journal that T-Mobile and Sprint users weren't affected because, "historically those two companies have had more consumer-friendly policies."

2016–The British newspaper, The Independent, publishes its last print edition.

2016–A new study in the journal, Scientific Reports, fibds that the Eastern migratory monarch butterfly population declined by 84% from the winter of 1996-1997 to the winter of 2014-2015. The study demonstrates that there is a substantial chance (11% to 57%) of their quasi-extinction over the next 20 years.

2016–The Rolling Stones perform in Havana, Cuba, the first Western band to play an open-air, free concert in the country.

2016–Author, Jim Harrison, dies of a heart attack in Patagonia, Arizona, at age 78. He is best known for his 1979 novella Legends of the Fall.


PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor; Aesop's Fables; a map of Territory of Orleans; Ludwig van Beethoven; Duncan Hines; Walt Whitman; Tennessee Wiliams; Sterling Hayden; Strother Martin; Sarah Bernhardt; Leonard Nimoy; James Caan; Bob Woodward; Johnny Crawford; Steven Tyler; Martin Short; art for The Three Faces of Eve; a poster for Funny Girl; Golden Gate Park Conservatory in San Francisco, California; Noel Coward; a poster for Tommy; Jimmy McCollugh; Keira Knightley; Dezo Hoffman; Halston; Edmund S. Muskie; a poster for Boys Don't Cry; Jan Sterling; and Geraldine Ferraro.

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