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1970–During an interview with a reporter from the French magazine, L'Express, John Lennon states that the Beatles smoked marijuana in a restroom at Buckingham Palace on the day they were given their MBE's back in 1965. Questioned about John's comment, a spokesman for Buckingham Palace replies, "Obviously when people come along to an investiture, toilet facilities are available."



238–Gordian I and his son, Gordian II, are proclaimed Roman Emperors.

1212–Emperor Go-Horikawa of Japan is born Yutahito-shinno.

1457–The Gutenberg Bible becomes the first book to be printed.

1459–Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian I, is born in Wiener Neustadt, Austria.

1508–Ferdinand II of Aragon commissions Amerigo Vespucci as Chief Navigator of the Spanish Empire.

1609–Polish King, John II Casimir Vasa, is born Jan II Kazimierz Waza in Kraków, Poland.

1621–The Pilgrims of Plymouth Colony sign a Peace Treaty with Massasoit, of the Wampanoags.

1622–The first major massacre of European colonists by the Algonquian Indians, is led by Opechancanough, Chief of the Pamunkey. They slaughter 347 English settlers around Jamestown, Virginia, nearly one third of the settlement’s total population.

1630–The Massachusetts Bay Colony outlaws the possession of cards, dice, and gaming tables.

1685–Emperor Go-Sai of Japan dies at age 47.

1713–The Tuscarora War comes to an end with the fall of Fort Neoheroka, effectively opening up the interior of North Carolina to European colonization.

1733–Joseph Priestly invents carbonated seltzer water.

1739–Nader Shah occupies Delhi, India, sacking the city and stealing the jewels of the Peacock Throne.

1765–The Stamp Act is passed, representing the first direct British tax on American colonists.

1784–The Emerald Buddha is moved to its current place in Wat Phra Kaew, Thailand.

1794–The U.S. Congress bans American vessels from supplying slaves to other countries.

1797–German Emperor, William I, is born in Berlin, Prussia.

1822–The New York Horticultural Society is founded.

1829–In the London Protocol, the three protecting powers (United Kingdom, France, and Russia) establish the borders of Greece.

1832–Writer, J.W. Goethe, dies of heart failure in Weimar, Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, German Confederation, at age 82. He was an early participant in the Sturm und Drang literary movement. This was literally "Storm and Drive" or "Storm and Urge," though conventionally translated as "Storm and Stress," a proto-Romantic movement in German literature and music taking place from the late 1760s to the early 1780s, in which individual subjectivity and extremes of emotion were given free expression in reaction to the perceived constraints of rationalism imposed by the Enlightenment and associated aesthetic movements.

1841–Cornstarch is patented by Orlando Jones.

1857–Paul Doumer, 14th President of France, is born in Aurillac, France.

1863–Tribal Chief, Opothleyahola, dies at a refugee camp in Quenemo in Osage County, Kansas, at age 85. Known as a diplomatic chief, he led Creek forces against the United States government during the first two Seminole Wars.

1869–Emilio Aguinaldo, the first President of the Philippines, is born in Cavite El Viejo, Spanish East Indies (present-day Kawit, Cavite, Philippines).

1872–Illinois becomes the first state to require gender equality in employment.

1873–A law is approved by the Spanish National Assembly in Puerto Rico to abolish slavery.

1887–Comedian, Chico Marx, is born Leonard Marx in New York, New York. Leonard was the oldest of The Marx Brothers, though he was not the first-born; he was preceded by Manfred Marx, who died in infancy. In addition to his work as a performer, he played an important role in the management and development of the act, at least in its early years. His brothers are Groucho, Harpo, and Gummo Marx.

1888–The English Football League is established.

1894–The first playoff game for the Stanley Cup begins.

1895–In Paris, France, Auguste and Louis Lumiere give the first demonstration of motion pictures using celluloid film.

1904–The first color photograph is published in The London Daily Illustrated Mirror.

1908–Western writer, Louis (Dearborn) L'Amour, is born in Jamestown, North Dakota. He left school at age 15 to travel the world, exploring much of the American West and working for a while as a miner. He also traveled to East Africa, and worked as an elephant handler, a lumberjack, a boxer, and a migrant farm worker. In his 30s, L'Amour began writing novels about life on the western frontier. His first big success was Hondo in 1953. Throughout the next three decades, he wrote several books a year, 100 of them in all, which sold over 200 million copies worldwide.

1912–The State of Bihar, India, is formed out of the State of Bengal.

1912–Actor, (Henry) Wilfrid Brambell, is born in Dublin, Ireland. He is best known for the role of Paul McCartney’s grandfather in The Beatles’ first feature film A Hard Day’s Night. Brambell was starring in the British TV series, Steptoe and Son, during that time, and a constant thread throughout the series was that his character was a "dirty old man,” leading to the ongoing joke in A Hard Day’s Night, that he was “old, but he’s clean." He appeared in the films The Quatermass Experiment, The Adventures of Robin Hood, Serious Charge, In Search of the Castaways, The Three Lives of Thomasina, and Alice in Wonderland.

1912–Actor, Karl Malden, is born Mladen George Sekulovich in Chicago, Illinois. He is best known for the role of Lt. Mike Stone on the 1970s TV crime drama The Streets of San Francisco. He appeared in the films 13 Rue Madeleine, Kiss of Death, Halls of Montezuma, A Streetcar Named Desire, Ruby Gentry, I Confess, On the Waterfront, Baby Doll, Fear Strikes Out, Pollyanna, The Great Imposter, One-Eyed Jacks, Parrish, All Fall Down, Birdman of Alcatraz, How the West Was Won, Gypsy, Come Fly with Me, Dead Ringer, Cheyenne Autumn, The Cincinnati Kid, Nevada Smith, Murderers’ Row, Patton, Wild Rovers, and Nuts.

1913–Film executive, Lew Wasserman, American movie studio executive, is born Lewis Robert Wasserman in Cleveland, Ohio. He was a talent agent and studio executive, sometimes credited with creating, and later taking apart, the studio system. His career spanned over six decades. He was also the manager of MCA.

1915–Activist, John McConnell, is born in Davis City, Iowa. He founded Earth Day, which is celebrated annually on the spring equinox. The Earth Day Flag, which McConnell created, is a symbol of Earth Day and is still part of the Earth Day Ceremony each year on the spring equinox at the United Nations. McConnell originated and promoted major ideas to relieve human suffering and promote the common good. His interests included proposals for solving many of the critical problems that face humanity today.

1916–The last Emperor of China, Yuan Shikai, abdicates the throne and the Republic of China is restored.

1916–British writer, poet, and professor, J.R.R. Tolkien, marries Edith Mary Bratt at St. Mary Immaculate Roman Catholic Church, in Warwick, England.

1917–Actress, Virginia Grey, is born in Los Angeles, California. She appeared in the films Uncle Tom’s Cabin, The Great Ziegfeld, The Women, Mr. and Mrs. North, Stage Door Canteen, The Rose Tattoo, All That Heaven Allows, Jeanne Eagels, Portrait in Black, Tammy Tell Me True, Back Street, Flower Drum Song, Madame X, and Airport!

1920–Actor, Werner Klemperer, is born in Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. He is best known for the role of Colonel Wilhelm Klink on the TV series Hogan's Heroes. He appeared in the films Death of a Scoundrel, The Wrong Man, The High Cost of Loving, The Goddess, Houseboat, Judgment at Nuremberg, Youngblood Hawke, and Ship of Fools.

1920–Actor, Ross Martin, is born Martin Rosenblatt in Grodek, Poland. He best known for the role of Artemus Gordon on the TV series The Wild Wild West from 1965 to 1969. He appeared in the films Conquest of Space, Experiment in Terror, The Colossus of New York, Geronimo, The Ceremony, and The Great Race.

1923–Mime, Marcel Marceau, is born Marcel Mangel in Strasburg, France. Marceau managed almost single-handedly to revive the ancient art of pantomime in the second half of the 20th century. He was active in the French Resistance during World War II, and then after the war, founded his own mime troupe. He became the world's best-known mime, and his most famous character was "Bip the Clown," in sailor pants and a striped jacket.

1924–Al Neuharth, founder of the daily newspaper USA Today, is born in rural South Dakota.

1930–Televangelist, Pat Robertson, is born Marion Gordon Robertson in Lexington, Virginia. He serves as Chancellor of Regent University and Chairman of the Christian Broadcasting Network. He is a best-selling author and the host of The 700 Club, a Christian news and TV program broadcast live weekdays throughout the United States and worldwide.

1930–Lyricist, Stephen (Joshua) Sondheim, is born in New York, New York. He is a composer and lyricist known for his many contributions to musical theatre for over 50 years. His works include West Side Story, Gypsy, A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum, Company, Follies, A Little Night Music, Sweeney Todd, Sunday in the Park with George, and Into the Woods.

1931–Actor, William Shatner, is born in Côte-Saint-Luc, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. He is best known for the role of Captain Kirk of the sci-fi TV series Star Trek. He also starred in the action TV series T.J. Hooker. He was cast in many other TV shows, including Howdy Doody, Playhouse 90, The United States Steel Hour, Alfred Hitchcock Presents, One Step Beyond, Thriller, Naked City, Twilight Zone, 77 Sunset Strip, Route 66, The Outer Limits, The Fugitive, The Big Valley, Dr. Kildare, Gunsmoke, The Virginian, Hawaii Five-O, Mission: Impossible, Kung Fu, Columbo, and 3rd Rock from the Sun. He appeared in the films The Butler’s Night Off, The Brothers Karamazov, The Explosive Generation, Judgment at Nuremberg, The Intruder, The Outrage, White Comanche, Impulse, Big Bad Mama, and Kingdom of the Spiders.

1931–Ban Johnson, founder of baseball's American League, dies in St. Louis, Missouri, at age 66.

1932–Bluesman, Juke Boy Bonner, is born Weldon H. Philip Bonner in Bellville, Texas. He accompanied himself on guitar, harmonica, and drums in songs such as Going Back to the Country, Life is a Nightmare, and Struggle Here in Houston. He got the nickname "Juke Boy" as a youth, because he frequently sang in local juke joints.

1932–Businessman, Sidney (Harvey) Craig, is born in Vancouver, British Columbia. He was the co-founder with his wife, Jenny, of the Jenny Craig diet centers.

1933–Prohibition ends, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a bill legalizing the sale and possession of beer and wine containing up to 3.2% alcohol.

1933–Economist and politician, (Sayyed) Abolhassan Banisadr, is born in Hamadan, Iran. He was the first President of Iran.

1934–Actress, May Britt, is born Maybritt Wilkens in Lidingö, Sweden. She appeared in the films War and Peace, The Young Lions, The Hunters, The Blue Angel, and Murder, Inc. She was married to entertainer, Sammy Davis, Jr. At that time of their wedding in 1960, interracial marriage was forbidden by law in 31 U.S. states, and only in 1967 were those laws (by then down to 17 states) ruled unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court.

1935–Actor, M. Emmet Walsh, is born Michael Emmet Walsh in Ogdensburg, New York. He appeared in the films Alice’s Restaurant, Midnight Cowboy, Little Big Man, Escape from the Planet of the Apes, What’s Up, Doc?, Serpico, Bound for Glory, Straight Time, The Jerk, Brubaker, Ordinary People, Back Roads, Cannery Row, Blade Runner, Silkwood, Blood Simple, Harry and the Hendersons, Raising Arizona, and The Milagro Beanfield War.

1940–Actor, Haing S. Ngor, is born Haing Somnang Ngor in Samrong Yong, Cambodia. He was a Cambodian-American physician and author. He is best known for winning the 1985 Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his debut performance in the movie The Killing Fields, in which he portrayed Cambodian journalist and refugee, Dith Pran.

1941–The Grand Coulee Dam in Washington goes into operation, generating electricity.

1941–Jeremy Clyde, of Chad and Jeremy, is born Michael Jeremy Thomas Clyde in Dorney, Buckinghamshire, England. The duo had several hits during the British Invasion, among them Yesterday's Gone and Summer Song. On American television, they appeared on The Dick Van Dyke Show and The Patty Duke Show. Clyde appeared in the films Silver Bears, Ffolkes, Invitation to the Wedding, The Misadventures of Mr. Wilt, Splitting Heirs, The Musketeer, and The Iron Lady. He is the son of Lady Elizabeth Wellesley. Through his maternal line, Clyde is the grandson of Gerald Wellesley, 7th Duke of Wellington, and the cousin of Charles Wellesley, 9th Duke of Wellington.

1943–The entire population of Khatyn, in Belarus, is burnt alive by German occupation forces.

1943–Guitarist, George Benson, is born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He is a 10-time Grammy Award-winning musician and singer-songwriter. He began his professional career at age 21, as a jazz guitarist. Benson uses a rest-stroke picking technique, similar to that of gypsy jazz players, such as Django Reinhardt. His album Breezin' was certified triple-platinum on the Billboard 200 chart in 1976. His biggest hits were This Masquerade and On Broadway.

1943–Keith Relf, of The Yardbirds, is born in Richmond, Surrey, England.

1945–The Arab League is founded as a charter and is adopted in Cairo, Egypt.

1946–Harry Vanda, guitarist for The Easybeats, is born Johannes Hendrikus Jacob van den Berg in The Hague, Netherlands.

1948–Television journalist, Wolf (Issac) Blitzer, is born in Augsburg, Germany. He has been an investigative reporter and news anchor for CNN since 1990.

1948–Composer, Andrew Lloyd Webber, is born in Kensington, London, England. He has composed 13 musicals and several of them have run for more than a decade both in the West End in London and on Broadway. His works include Joseph and the Amazing Dreamcoat, Jesus Christ Superstar, Evita, Cats, The Phantom of the Opera, and Sunset Boulevard. He was married to singer, Sarah Brightman.

1952–Sportscaster, Bob Costas, is born Robert Quinlan Costas in Queens, New York. He has been on the air for NBC Sports TV since the early 1980s. In 2001, Costas was hired by HBO to host a 12-week series called On the Record with Bob Costas.

1954–The first American shopping mall opens in Southfield, Michigan.

1954–Having been closed since 1939, the bullion market reopens in London, England.

1954–Having been closed since 1939, the London bullion market reopens.

1956–Actress, Lena Olin, is born Lena Maria Jonna Olin in Stockholm, Sweden. She has appeared in the films Fanny and Alexander, After the Rehearsal, The Unbearable Lightness of Being, Friends, Enemies, A Love Story, Havana, Romeo Is Bleeding, Mr. Jones, Mystery Men, and Chocolat. She is married to film director, Lasse Hallström.

1956–Sammy Davis, Jr. makes his stage debut in the Broadway play Mr. Wonderful.

1958–Hank Williams, Jr. makes his his first public appearance, at the age of eight, singing in Swainsboro, Georgia. He is the son of country singer, Hank Williams.

1958–The USSR conducts a nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya.

1958–Film executive, Michael Todd, is killed in an airplane crash in Grants, New Mexico, at age 48. His wife, actress Elizabeth Taylor, who had been given time off from the filming of Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, wanted to fly to New York with Todd, but stayed home with a cold after her pleas to come along were overruled.

1959–Actor, Matthew (Avery) Modine, is born in Loma Linda, California. He appeared in the films Baby It’s You, Private School, Steamers, Birdy, The Hotel New Hampshire, Mrs. Soffel, Vision Quest, Orphans, Full Metal Jacket, Married to the Mob, Gross Anatomy, Memphis Belle, Pacific Heights, and Notting Hill.

1960–The first patent for lasers is granted to Arthur Schawlow and Charles Townes. Lasers have made CD and DVD technology possible.

1963–The Beatles first album, Please Please Me, is released on the Parlophone label in the U.K. It goes all the way to #1.

1963–British Minister of War, John Profumo, denies having sex with Christine Keeler.

1965–The U.S. confirms its troops used chemical warfare against the Vietcong.

1970–During an interview with a reporter from the French magazine, L'Express, John Lennon states that the Beatles smoked marijuana in a restroom at Buckingham Palace on the day they were given their MBE's back in 1965. Questioned about John's comment, a spokesman for Buckingham Palace replies, "Obviously when people come along to an investiture, toilet facilities are available."

1971–The USSR conducts a nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh.

1972–The U.S. Congress sends the Equal Rights Amendment to the states for ratification.

1972–In Eisenstadt vs. Baird, the U.S. Supreme Court decides that unmarried people have the right to possess contraceptives.

1975–A fire at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant in Decatur, Alabama, causes dangerous lowering of cooling water levels.

1975–Actress, Anne (Louise) Dudek, is born in Boston, Massachusetts. She has appeared in the films The Human Stain, White Chicks, Park, and 10 Items or Less.

1976–Actress, Reese Witherspoon, is born Laura Jeanne Reese Witherspoon in New Orleans, Louisiana. She has appeared in the films The Man in the Moon, Wildflower, Jack the Bear, Fear, Pleasantville, Election, American Psycho, Legally Blonde, Sweet Home Alabama, Vanity Fair, and Walk the Line. She was married to actor, Ryan Phillippe.

1977–Indira Gandhi resigns as Prime Minister of India.

1978–The Rutles' All You Need Is Cash, an affectionate spoof of The Beatles' career, is broadcast in the U.S. A copy of both the program and the soundtrack album are sent to John Lennon at his home at the Dakota for him to give a nod of approval. He was so impressed with the film that he refused to send the samples back to Neil Innes (who played the John character, “Ron Nasty”).

1978–Karl Wallenda, of the The Flying Wallendas, dies in a high-wire accident, at age 73. He fell off a tightrope stretched between the top of two hotels in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

1982–NASA's Space Shuttle Columbia, is launched from the Kennedy Space Center on its third mission, STS-3.

1984–Teachers at the McMartin Preschool in Manhattan Beach, California are charged with satanic ritual abuse of the children in the school. The charges are later dropped as completely unfounded.

1986–Singer, Mark Dinning, dies of a heart attack in Jefferson City, Missouri, at age 52. He had a #1 hit with the novelty song, Teen Angel, in 1960.

1989–Clint Malarchuk, of the Buffalo Sabres, suffers a near-fatal injury, when another player accidentally slits his throat in one of the most gruesome sports injuries of all time.

1989–Pete Rozelle announces retirement as NFL Commissioner after 29 years.

1991–High school teacher, Pamela Smart, is found guilty (in New Hampshire) of manipulating her student-lover to kill her husband.

1991–Dave Guard, of The Kingston Trio, dies of cancer in Strafford County, New Hampshire, at age 56. The folk group had hits with Tom Dooley and A Worried Man.

1992–USAir Flight 405 crashes shortly after takeoff from New York City's LaGuardia Airport.

1993–The Intel Corporation ships the first Pentium chips (80586), featuring a 60 MHz clock speed, 100+ MIPS, and a 64 bit data path.

1994–Hard rocker, Ted Nugent, makes a PSA warning kids of the dangers of abusing inhalants.

1994–Dan Hartman, of The Edgar Winter Group, dies of an AIDS-related brain tumor in Westport, Connecticut, at age 43. He wrote one their biggest hits, Free Ride.

1994–Cartoonist, Walter Lantz, dies of heart failure in Burbank, California, at age 94. He created the cartoon character “Woody Woodpecker.”

1995–Cosmonaut, Valeriy Polyakov, returns to Earth after setting a record of 438 days in space.

1996–Don Murray, former drummer for The Turtles, dies of complications from surgery in Santa Monica, California, at age 50.

1996–Astronaut, Robert Franklin Overmyer, dies in a plane crash in Duluth, Minnesota, at age 59. Overmyer was selected by the U.S. Air Force as an astronaut for its Manned Orbiting Laboratory in 1966. Upon cancellation of the program in 1969, he became a NASA astronaut and served support crew duties for the Skylab Program and Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. In 1976, he was assigned to the Space Shuttle program, and flew as Pilot on STS-5 in 1982, and as Commander on STS-51-B in 1985.

1996–Billy Williamson, of Bill Haley & His Comets, dies in Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, at age 71. In 1956, he appeared in the rock and roll movies Rock Around the Clock and Don't Knock the Rock.

1997–Comet Hale-Bopp makes its closest approach to Earth.

1997–Beatle Paul McCartney's original birth certificate is sold at auction for $84,146.

1997–Tara Lipinski, age 14 years and 10 months, becomes the youngest women's World Figure Skating Champion.

2001–Animator, William Hanna, dies of throat cancer in North Hollywood, California, at age 90. He was the founder of Hanna-Barbera, which became the most successful television animation studio of the era, producing the programs The Flintstones, The Huckleberry Hound Show, The Jetsons, Scooby-Doo, The Smurfs, and Yogi Bear.

2004–Ahmed Yassin, co-founder and leader of the Palestinian Sunni Islamist militant group, Hamas, is killed (along with his bodyguards) in the Gaza Strip when hit by Israeli Air Force missiles.

2005–Rod Price, of Foghat, dies of a heart attack after falling down a flight of stairs in Wilton, New Hampshire, at age 57. He played on the band's first 10 albums, released from 1972 to 1980. He was known as “The Magician of Slide” and “Slide King of Rock and Roll,” due to his slide guitar playing.

2006–Three Christian Peacemaker Team (CPT) hostages are freed by British forces in Baghdad after 118 days of captivity and the murder of their American colleague, Tom Fox.

2006–Architect, Kenzo Tange, dies in Tokyo, Japan, at age 91. His funeral was held in the Tokyo Cathedral, which he had designed. During his career, Tange designed buildings in over 20 countries.

2007–Indian philosopher, Uppaluri Gopala Krishnamurti, dies in Vallecrosia, Italy, at age 88. He was an Indian seeker who questioned enlightenment. Throughout his life, Krishnamurti never saw a doctor or took medication, believing the body would take care of itself.

2009–Mount Redoubt, an Alaskan volcano begins to erupt.

2013–A fire destroys a camp containing Burmese refugees near Ban Mae, Thailand, killing 37 people and injuring 200 others.

2014–At least 35 people die in Balochistan, Pakistan, in a collision between a petrol tanker and two buses.

2014–A mudflow near Oso, Washington, kills 43 people.

2014–Turtle Canyon is opened in Newport, Kentucky. It is an exhibit at the Newport Aquarium. The attraction, based on the viewing or touching of turtles, is notably growing in popularity. The exhibit features three notable turtles, “Bravo” the Galapagos tortoise; “Thunder” the alligator snapping turtle; and “Denver” the loggerhead sea turtle.

2015–More than 500 years after his death in battle, the remains of Richard III are brought to what will be his final resting place. The lead-lined, golden-oak coffin of the last Plantagenet king left the University of Leicester, beginning a last, symbolic journey through the countryside to Bosworth battlefield where, in 1485, the king fell to Henry Tudor. Archaeologists had found him buried under a council car park in 2012.

2015–Singer, David Crosby, accidentally hits a jogger while driving his Tesla in Southern California. Authorities said Crosby was not impaired or intoxicated and that he did not see the jogger because the sun was in his eyes.

2016–At least 34 people are killed and at least 300 others are injured in a total of three bombings at the airport and the Maelbeek/Maalbeek Metro Station during a terrorist attack in Brussels, Belgium.


PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Emperor Go-Horikawa of Japan; carbonated seltzer water; J.W. Goethe; Chico Marx; Wilfred Brambell; Virginia Grey; Marcel Marceau; William Shatner; May Britt; Jeremy Clyde; Wolf Blitzer; a poster for Mr. Wonderful; The Beatles' first album Please Please Me; Reese Witherspoon; Karl Walenda; Walter Lantz; Comet Hale-Bopp; and Uppaluri Gopala Krishnamurti.

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