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1958–The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) launches its Gold Award Program to honor artists with outstanding sales. One million units sold of a single 45 rpm record earned Gold status. In 1976, the Platinum Award was introduced for singles which sold two million units. Today, the single awards are given at the half-million for Gold and one million for Platinum for sales or downloads, with the same award qualifications for album-length releases. The Diamond Award (album sales of over 10 million) was introduced in 1999.



624–A key battle takes place between Muhammad's army (the new followers of Islam) and the Quraysh of Mecca. The Muslims win the battle, known as the turning point of Islam, in the Hejaz region of western Arabia.

874–The bones of Saint Nicephorus are interred in the Church of the Holy Apostles, Constantinople.

1138–Cardinal Gregorio Conti is elected Antipope as Victor IV, succeeding Anacletus II.

1202–Mieszko III the Old, King of Poland, dies in Kalisz, Poland, at age 76.

1372–Louis I, Duke of Orléans, is born in France.

1447–Shahrukh Mirza, Timurid ruler of Persia and Transoxania, dies during a journey in Rey, Persia, at age 69.

1490–Charles I, Duke of Savoy, dies in Pinerolo, Italy, at age 21.

1516–Vladislaus II of Hungary dies in Buda, Kingdom of Hungary, at age 60.

1519–Cortez lands in Mexico.

1567–The Battle of Oosterweel north of Antwerp, takes place and is traditionally seen as the beginning of the Eighty Years' War.

1591–In Mali, Moroccan forces of the Saadi Dynasty, led by Judar Pasha defeat the Songhai Empire, despite being outnumbered by at least five to one.

1615–Pope Innocent XII is born Antonio Pignatelli in Spinazzola, Kingdom of Naples.

1639–Cambridge College is renamed Harvard for clergyman, John Harvard.

1648–Anne Henriette of Bavaria is born Anne Henriette Julie in Paris, France.

1697–Nojpetén, capital of the last independent Maya kingdom, falls to Spanish conquistadors, as the final step in the Spanish conquest of Guatemala.

1741–Holy Roman Emperor, Joseph II, is born Joseph Benedikt August Johannes Anton Michael Adam at Schönbrunn Palace in Austria. He was the brother of Marie Antoinette.

1764–Charles Grey, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, is born in Fallodon, Northumberland, England. Earl Grey tea, a blend which uses bergamot oil to flavor the beverage, is named after Grey.

1781–Astronomer, William Hershel, discovers Uranus, the seventh planet from the Sun in our Solar System.

1798–Abigail Fillmore, wife of President Millard Fillmore, is born Abigail Powers in Stillwater, New York. She was the 14th First Lady of the United States.

1808–Christian VII of Denmark, dies from a stroke in Rendsburg, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, at age 59.

1809–Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden is deposed in a coup d'état.

1813–Restaurateur, Lorenzo Delmonico, is born in Marengo, Switzerland. In 1851, he joined his uncles in their catering and pastry shop in New York City. He eventually transformed the business into one of the most famous restaurants in the country, Delmonico’s.

1845–Felix Mendelssohn's Violin Concerto has its premiere performance in Leipzig, Germany, with Ferdinand David as soloist.

1854–Politician, Jean-Baptiste de Villèle, dies in Toulouse, France, at age 80. He was the sixth Prime Minister of France.

1860–Austrian composer, Hugo Wolf, is born in Windischgrätz (present-day Slovenj Gradec, Slovenia, Austrian Empire. His greatest works, settings to music of German, Spanish, and Italian poems, were composed in just three years, from 1888 to 1891.

1861–Jefferson Davis signs a bill authorizing the use of slaves as soldiers.

1862–The U.S. Federal Government forbids all Union Army officers from returning fugitive slaves, effectively annulling the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, and setting the stage for the Emancipation Proclamation.

1865–The Confederate Congress under President Jefferson Davis signs a bill allowing slaves to join the army in exchange for freedom.

1868–The U.S. Senate begins the impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson.

1871–Scientist, Philo Farnsworth, is born in Holliday, Utah. He was the first to formulate the theory that images could be created via electrons, which is the principle behind television.

1881–Alexander II, Tsar of Russia, dies by assassination in a bomb explosion at Winter Palace, St. Petersburg, Russian Empire, at age 62.

1882–Eadweard Muybridge demonstrates his zoopraxiscope for the Prince of Wales, Prime Minister Gladstone, and Alfred Lord Tennyson at the Royal Institution in London, England. The machine was a primitive ancestor of the movie projector. It allowed Muybridge to combine still photographs of animal movement into continuous, flickering life.

1884–The United States adopts Standard Time.

1884–The Siege of Khartoum, Sudan, begins.

1887–Chester Greenwood, of Maine, patents earmuffs.

1891–Henrik Ibsen's play Ghosts, dealing with venereal disease, opens in London, England, to unveiled abuse.

1894–The world's first theatrical striptease act takes place at the Divan Fayouau Music Hall in Paris, France. It consisted of a girl stripping to go to bed.

1897–San Diego State University is founded in San Diego, California.

1898–Film producer and director, Henry Hathaway, is born Marquis Henri Léopold de Fiennes in Sacramento, California. He was the son of an American actor and stage manager, Rhody Hathaway and a Hungarian-born Belgian aristocrat, Marquise Lillie de Fiennes, who acted under the name Jean Hathaway. In 1925, Hathaway began working in silent films as an assistant to notable directors such as Victor Fleming and Josef von Sternberg, and made the transition to sound with them. His films include The Last Round-Up, The Lives of a Bengal Lancer, Johnny Apollo, Brigham Young, Wing and a Prayer, 13 Rue Madeleine, Call Northside 777, Fourteen Hours, Rawhide, Niagara, Woman Obsessed, North to Alaska, How the West Was Won, The Sons of Katie Elder, Nevada Smith, 5 Card Stud, and True Grit.

1900–In France, the length of a workday for women and children is limited to 11 hours.

1900–In the Second Boer War, British forces occupy Bloemfontein, Orange Free State.

1901–Benjamin Harrison, 23rd U.S. President (1889-1893), dies of complications from influenza, in Indianapolis, Indiana, at age 67.

1901–Character actor, Paul Fix, is born in Dobbs Ferry, New York. He worked avidly in both film and television, but he is best known for the role of Marshal Micah Torrance in The Rifleman. He appeared in the films After the Thin Man, King of Alcatraz, Mr. Moto’s Gamble, The Fighting Seabees, Tall in the Saddle, Back to Bataan, Angel and the Badman, Red River, She Wore a Yellow Ribbon, Hondo, The High and the Mighty, Johnny Guitar, Blood Alley, The Bad Seed, To Kill a Mocking Bird, The Outrage, The Sons of Katie Elder, Nevada Smith, The Ballad of Josie, Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid, and Wanda Nevada.

1903–Super-centenarian, Yasutaro Koide, is born in Tsuruga, Fukui, Japan. He would live to the age of 112 (and 312 days). When he turned 110, Koide could still read newspapers without glasses and could eat without dentures.

1904–A bronze statue of Christ is dedicated on the Argentine-Chilian border.

1906–American suffragist, Susan B. Anthony, dies of heart failure and pneumonia in Rochester, New York, at age 86. She was an American social reformer who played a pivotal role in the women's suffrage movement.

1910–Orchestra leader, Sammy Kaye, is born Samuel Zarnocay, Jr. in Lakewood, Ohio. He was a bandleader and songwriter, whose tag line, "Swing and sway with Sammy Kaye," became one of the most famous of the Big Band Era.

1911–L. Ron Hubbard, founder of The Church of Scientology, is born Lafayette Ronald Hubbard in Tilden, Nebraska. The Church of Scientology attributes its genesis to Hubbard's discovery of “a new line of research,” first set out in his book, Science of Survival: “that man is most fundamentally a spiritual being.” Hubbard expanded upon the basics of “Dianetics” to construct a spiritually oriented doctrine based on the concept that the true self of a person was an immortal, omniscient, and potentially omnipotent entity, who has forgotten their god-like powers. Over the decades controversy and crisis followed Hubbard and the Church, and it has come to be seen as a cult that uses brainwashing techniques to attract new converts.

1913–William J. Casey, Director of the CIA (1981-1987), is born in Elmhurst, Queens, New York.

1914–Welsh entertainer, Tessie O'Shea, is born Teresa Mary O'Shea in Cardiff, Glamorganshire, Wales, United Kingdom. She performed on stage as early as age six, billed "The Wonder of Wales." By her teens. she was known for her popular BBC Radio broadcasts and appeared on stages in Britain and South Africa. She frequently finished her act by singing and playing a banjo in the style of George Formby. While appearing in Blackpool in the 1930s, she capitalized on her size by adopting Two Ton Tessie from Tennessee as her theme song. In the 1940s, she was a frequent headliner at the London Palladium, and established herself as a hit recording artist in the 1950s. In 1963, O'Shea was a guest on The Ed Sullivan Show, and she was popular enough that she came back in 1964 and shared the billing with The Beatles. Their joint appearance drew the largest number of viewers in the history of U.S. television, helping to bring her to American audiences.

1920–The Kapp Putsch briefly ousts the Weimar Republic government from Berlin.

1920–Businessman, Ralph J. Roberts, is born in New Rochelle, New York. He co-founded Comcast Communications.

1921–Mongolia is proclaimed an independent monarchy, ruled by Russian military officer and dictator, Roman von Ungern-Sternberg.

1923–Lee de Forest demonstrates his sound-on-film moving pictures in New York City.

1925–A law in Tennessee prohibits the teaching of evolution.

1928–The St. Francis Valley Dam, 40 miles north of Los Angeles, California, bursts, flooding the area. At least 450 people are drowned.

1929–Actor, (Joseph) Peter Breck, is born in Rochester, New York. He is best known for his role as Victoria Barkley's middle son Nick, in the popular TV Western, The Big Valley, from 1965 to 1969. He appeared in the films Thunder Road, I Want to Live!, The Beatniks, Hootenanny Hoot, The Crawling Hand, and Shock Corridor.

1929–Photographer and model, Bunny Yeager, is born Linnea Eleanor Yeager in Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania. In 1954, she met Bettie Page and took over 1,000 photographs of her that year. Along with photographer, Irving Klaw, Yeager played a role in helping to make Page famous, particularly with her photos in Playboy magazine. Yeager also appeared in Playboy as a model five times: one appearance with the headline, "Queen of the Playboy Centerfolds," was photographed by Hugh Hefner. Her work was also published in mainstream magazines including Cosmopolitan, Esquire, Pageant, Redbook, and Women's Wear Daily. Yeager designed and produced hundreds of bikinis when the two piece swimsuit was a new fashion item and is credited with its popularity in America.

1930–The news of the discovery of Pluto is telegraphed to the Harvard College Observatory.

1933–Banks in the U.S. start to re-open after the President Roosevelt’s mandated “bank holiday.”

1933–Josef Göbbels becomes the German Minister of Information & Propaganda.

1933–Mike Stoller, of the Leiber & Stoller writing team, is born in Long Island, New York. They wrote Hound Dog and Jailhouse Rock, which both became big hits for Elvis Presley.

1935–The Driving Test is introduced in Great Britain.

1938–Austria is annexed to the Third Reich.

1938–World News Roundup is broadcast for the first time in America on CBS Radio.

1938–Clarence S. Darrow, Scopes “Monkey” Trial attorney, dies of pulmonary heart disease in Chicago, Illinois, at age 80. He was a leading member of the American Civil Liberties Union. Darrow is remembered for his reputation as a fierce litigator who, in many cases, championed the cause of the underdog. Because of this, he is generally regarded as one of the greatest criminal defense lawyers in American history.

1939–Singer-songwriter, Neil Sedaka, is born in Brooklyn, New York. He had a string of hits including, Oh! Carol, Calendar Girl, Breaking Up Is Hard to Do, Happy Birthday Sweet Sixteen, and Laughter in the Rain. In the 1970s, he wrote Love Will Keep Us Together for The Captain and Tennille, and then made a comeback with the hit Solitaire.

1940–The Russo-Finnish Winter War comes to an end.

1942–Record producer, Marshall Chess, is born in Chicago, Illinois. He is the son and nephew of the founders of Chess Records (Leonard and Phil Chess), the Chicago-based independent record label that first recorded an unprecedented list of African-American, blues and early rock and roll artists including Muddy Waters, Howlin'' Wolf, Bo Diddley, Sonny Boy Williamson, Memphis Slim, John Lee Hooker, Rufus Thomas, Elmore James, Willie Dixon, Chuck Berry, Etta James, and Buddy Guy.

1942–Software developer, Dave Cutler, is born in Lansing, Michigan. He is the designer and developer of several operating systems including Windows NT at Microsoft, and RSX-11M, VMS, and VAXELN at Digital Equipment Corporation.

1943–German forces liquidate the Jewish ghetto in Kraków.

1947–The 19th Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: The Best Years of Our Lives; Best Actor: Fredric March for The Best Years of Our Lives; Best Actress: Olivia de Havilland for To Each His Own; Best Director: William Wyler for The Best Years of Our Lives. The ceremonies are held at The Shrine Auditorium, Los Angeles, California. The host is Jack Benny.

1948–Princess Helena Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein dies at Fitzmaurice Place, Berkeley Square, London, England, at age 77. She was a granddaughter of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.

1950–Political commentator, Charles Krauthammer, is born in New York, New York. He is an American Pulitzer Prize-winning syndicated columnist, author, political commentator, and physician. His weekly column is syndicated to more than 400 newspapers worldwide. He is a contributing editor to The Weekly Standard and a nightly panelist on Fox News' Special Report with Bret Baier.

1950–Actor, William H. Macy, is born William Hall Macy, Jr. in Miami, Florida. He appeared in the films Somewhere in Time, Without a Trace, House of Games, Radio Days, Being Human, Benny & Joon, Searching for Bobby Fischer, The Client, Oleanna, Tall Tale, Mr. Holland’s Opus, Fargo, Ghosts of Mississippi, Boogie Nights, Wag the Dog, Pleasantville, A Civil Action, Mystery Men, Magnolia, Stealing Sinatra, Seabiscuit, Bobby, and Wild Hogs. He is married to actress, Felicity Huffman.

1953–Actress, Deborah (Iona) Raffin, is born in Los Angeles, California. She appeared in the films 40 Carats, Once Is Not Enough, The Sentinel, Touched by Love, Claudia, Death Wish 3, and Night of the Fox.

1954–Viet Minh forces, under Vo Nguyen Giap, unleash a massive artillery barrage on the French to begin the Battle of Dien Bien Phu, the climactic battle in the First Indochina War.

1955–Actress, Glenne (Aimee) Headly, is born in New London, Connecticut. She appeared in the films Four Friends, Doctor Detroit, Fandango, The Purple Rose of Cairo, Eleni, Making Mr. Right, Nadine, Stars and Bars, Dirty Rotten Scoundrels, Dick Tracy, Mortal Thoughts, Mr. Holland’s Opus, 2 Days in the Valley, The Joneses, and The Circle. She was married to actor, John Malkovich.

1956–The album Elvis Presley is released. Most cite it as the first million-selling LP.

1956–Actress, Dana (Welles) Delany, is born in New York, New York. She is best known for the role of Colleen McMurphy on the TV series China Beach, for which she won two Emmy Awards. She appeared in the films The Fan, Masquerade, Patty Hearst, Moon Over Parador, Light Sleeper, Housesitter, Tombstone, Fly Away Home, and A Beautiful Life.

1957–Cuban student revolutionaries storm the Presidential Palace in Havana, Cuba, in a failed assassination attempt of President Fulgencio Batista.

1958–The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) launches its Gold Award Program to honor artists with outstanding sales. One million units sold of a single 45 rpm record earned Gold status. In 1976, the Platinum Award was introduced for singles which sold two million units. Today, the single awards are given at the half-million for Gold and one million for Platinum for sales or downloads, with the same award qualifications for album-length releases. The Diamond Award (album sales of over 10 million) was introduced in 1999.

1959–The Kingston Trio are nearly killed when their plane makes an emergency landing on a turkey farm in South Bend, Indiana.

1959–Socialite, Kathy Hilton, is born Kathleen Elizabeth Avanzino in New York, New York. She is the mother of Nikki and Paris Hilton, and the half-sister of Kim and Kyle Richards, who appeared on The Real Housewives of Beverly Hills. She is married to Hilton Hotel heir, Richard Hilton.

1960–Rock bassist, Adam Clayton, of U2, is born in Oxfordshire, England.

1961–Elizabeth Gurley Finn becomes President of U.S. Communist Party.

1961–At age 79, artist, Pablo Picasso, marries his 37-year-old model, Jacqueline Rocque.

1961–Boxer, Floyd Patterson, knocks out Ingemar Johansson in the 6th Round, winning the Heavyweight Boxing Championship.

1962–Lyman Lemnitzer, Chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, delivers a proposal (called Operation Northwoods, regarding performing terrorist attacks upon Guantanamo Bay Naval Base) to Secretary of Defense, Robert McNamara. The proposal is scrapped and President John F. Kennedy removes Lemnitzer from his position.

1964–Sales of the U.S. Capitol LP, Meet The Beatles, reach a record 3.5 million copies. Billboard reports that sales of Beatles singles currently account for 60% of the singles market. Cash Box lists four Beatles singles in the top four positions on its chart: She Loves You, I Want to Hold Your Hand, Please Please Me, and Twist and Shout.

1965–Guitarist, Eric Clapton, leaves The Yardbirds because of their new pop-oriented direction. Jeff Beck replaces him.

1969–Apollo 9 returns safely to Earth after testing the Lunar Module.

1969–A group calling itself "Revolutionary Force 9" takes credit for three bombings in New York City. The New York Times notes a “possible connection to The Beatles' song Revolution 9.”

1970–The Digital Equipment Corporation introduces the PDP-11 minicomputer.

1971–Actress, Annabeth Gish, is born Anne Elizabeth Gish in Albuquerque, New Mexico. She appeared in the films Desert Bloom, Hiding Out, Mystic Pizza, Shag, Coupe de Ville, Wyatt Earp, Nixon, Pursuit of Happiness, and The Celestine Prophecy. She is the grand-daughter of actress, Lillian Gish.

1972–The Lafayette retail chain begins to promote a revolutionary new concept in sound. It is called quadraphonics. It will split music into four speakers instead of two, as is the case with stereo sound.

1975–Country singers, George Jones and Tammy Wynette, divorce after six years of marriage.

1978–The Canadian Radio & Television Commission rejects the introduction of pay TV in Canada.

1979–The European Monetary System is established and the ECU is created.

1979–The New Jewel Movement, headed by Maurice Bishop, ousts Prime Minister Eric Gairy in a nearly bloodless coup d'état in Grenada.

1980–The Ford Motor Company is found not guilty in the deaths of three women in a Pinto that burst into flames.

1985–Actor, Emile (Davenport) Hirsch, is born in Palms, California. He has appeared in the films Wild Iris, The Dangerous Lives of Altar Boys, The Emperor’s Club, The Girl Next Door, Lords of Dogtown, Alpha Dog, Into the Wild, Milk, Savages, and Lone Survivor.

1986–Microsoft has its initial public offering.

1987–Racecar driver, Marco Andretti, is born in Nazareth, Pennsylvania. He is the third generation of the famous Andretti racing family. Michael Andretti is his father and he is the grandson of Mario Andretti.

1988–The Seikan Tunnel, the longest undersea tunnel in the world, opens between Aomori and Hakodate, Japan.

1988–Porn actor, John Holmes, dies from complications caused by AIDS in Los Angeles, California, at age 43. He was one of the most prolific male pornographic film actors of all time, appearing in about 2,250 adult loops and pornographic feature movies in the 1970s and 1980s.

1989–Residents of the southern part of the U.S. view a once in a lifetime display of the Northern Lights.

1990–Thunderstorms produce severe weather from northwest Texas to Wisconsin, Iowa, and Nebraska during the day and into the night. There are 59 tornadoes and about 200 reports of large hail or damaging winds. The most powerful tornado of the day is one that tears through the central Kansas community of Hesston, killing two people, injuring 60 others, and causing $22 million in damage along its 67-mile path. The tornado lasted for two hours.

1991–The U.S. Justice Department announces that Exxon has agreed to pay $1 billion for the clean-up of the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska.

1992–A 6.8 earthquake in Erzincan, eastern Turkey, causes 570 deaths.

1992–The newspaper Pravda, founded in 1912 by Lenin, ceases publication due to lack of funds. It had functioned as the official newspaper of the Soviet Communist Party.

1996–At Dunblane, on the edge of the Scottish Highlands, 43-year-old Thomas Hamilton, armed with four guns, enters the gymnasium of the Dunblane Primary School, and opens fire on a kindergarten class. Sixteen children and their teacher, Gwenne Mayor, are killed before the shooter turns a gun on himself.

1997–India's Missionaries of Charity choose Sister Nirmala to succeed Mother Teresa as its leader.

1997–The Phoenix Lights are seen over Phoenix, Arizona, by hundreds of people, and by millions on television. As a UFO sighting, there were allegedly two distinct events involved in the incident: a triangular formation of lights seen to pass over the state, and a series of stationary lights seen in the Phoenix area.

1999–Writer and film, director, Garson Kanin, dies in New York, New York, at age 86. His films include Bachelor Mother, My Favorite Wife, A Double Life, Adam’s Rib, Pat and Mike, The Girl Can’t Help It, High Time, The Rat Race, and Some Kind of a Nut. He was married to actress, Ruth Gordon.

2000–A quarter century after the end of the Vietnam War, U.S. Defense Secretary, William Cohen, arrives in Hanoi to push the pace of reconciliation.

2003–The journal, Nature, reports that 350,000-year-old upright-walking human footprints have been found in Italy.

2006–The 21st Annual Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Induction Ceremony is held. This year’s inductees are: (Performers) Black Sabbath, Blondie, Miles Davis, Lynyrd Skynyrd, and The Sex Pistols; (Non-Performer) No awards given; and (Sidemen) No awards given. The Lifetime Achievement goes to Herb Alpert and Jerry Moss. The ceremony takes place at The Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York City.

2006–Poultry expert, Robert C. Baker, dies at age 84. He was a Poultry and Food Science professor at Cornell University from 1949-1989, where he developed chicken nuggets, turkey ham, poultry hot dogs, and many other modern day poultry products.

2006–Actress, Maureen Stapleton, dies of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Lenox, Massachusetts, at age 80. She appeared in the films Lonelyhearts, The Fugitive Kind, Bye Bye Birdie, Airport, Plaza Suite, Summer of ‘42, Interiors, Lost and Found, Reds, The Fan, Johnny Dangerously, Cocoon, Heartburn, The Money Pit, Nuts, and Made in Heaven.

2008–Gold hits $1,000 an ounce for the first time.

2009–Actress, Betsy Blair, dies of cancer in London, England, at age 85. She appeared in the films A Double Life, The Snake Pit, No Way Out, Marty, Main Street, Lies My Father Told Me, All Night Long, Careless, Marry Me! Marry Me!, A Delicate Balance, and Betrayed.

2012–Encyclopedia Britannica announces that it will no longer publish printed versions.

2012–At least 28 people are killed in a bus crash in a motorway tunnel near the town of Sierre in the Swiss canton of Valais

2013–Pope Francis is elected, in the papal conclave, as the 266th Pope of the Catholic Church.

2014–Film production manager, Abby Singer, dies of cancer in Woodland Hils, California, at age 96. He worked on the TV shows The Virginian, It Takes a Thief, The Doris Day Show, The Mary Tyler Moore Show, Rhoda, The Bob Newhart Show, WKRP in Cincinnati, Hill Street Blues, and St. Elsewhere.

2016–Malaysia bans the recruitment of foreign workers after protests over plans to recruit 1.5 million people from Bangladesh.

2016–An explosion occurs in central Ankara, Turkey, with at least 37 people killed and 127 others wounded.

2016–Three gunmen attack two hotels in the Ivory Coast town of Grand-Bassam, killing at least 18 people and injuring 33 others.

2017–Scotland's First Minister, Nicola Sturgeon, announces that she will seek a second referendum on Scottish independence from the United Kingdom.


PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Vladislaus II of Hungary; Delmonico's; Philo Farnsworth; an early set of earmuffs; Henry Hathaway; Paul Fix; L. Ron Hubbard; Lee de Forest; Peter Breck; Clarence Darrow; Marshall Chess; the album Elvis Presley; Kathy Hilton; the Meet The Beatles LP; Annabeth Gish; the Sieken Tunnel in Japan; Pravda; Garson Kanin, and Maureen Stapleton.

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