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1945–Adolf Hitler orders the destruction of all Germany, as he believes it is unworthy of surviving him. His order mandates the destruction not only of military installations, but of all stores, industries, transportation, and communication installations. Nothing is to be left to fall into enemy hands.

BC 752–Romulus, legendary first King of Rome, celebrates the first Roman triumph after his victory over the Caeninenses, following “The Rape of the Sabine Women.”

BC 509–Publius Valerius Publicola, Roman consul, celebrates the first triumph of the Roman Republic after his victory over the deposed King Lucius Tarquinius Superbus at the Battle of Silva Arsia.

BC 86–Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army, enters Athens, removing the tyrant Aristion, who was supported by troops of Mithridates VI of Pontus, ending the Siege of Athens and Piraeus.

293–Emperor Diocletian and Maximian appoint Constantius Chlorus and Galerius as Caesars. This is considered the beginning of the Tetrarchy, known as the Quattuor Principes Mundi (“Four Rulers of the World”).

317–Crispus and Constantine II, sons of Roman Emperor Constantine I, and Licinius Iunior, son of Emperor Licinius, are made Caesares.

350–Vetranio is asked by Constantina, sister of Constantius II, to proclaim himself Caesar.

492–Pope Felix III dies in Rome, Kingdom of Odoacer.

834–Emperor Louis the Pious is restored as sole ruler of the Frankish Empire. After his re-accession to the throne, his eldest son, Lothair I, flees to Burgundy.

965–Pope Leo VIII dies in Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire.

991–Emperor En’yu dies in Heian Kyo (Kyoto), Japan, at age 31.

1105–Alfonso VII of Castile is born Alfonso Raimúndez in Caldas de Reis, Spain.

1131–Stephen II of Hungary dies of dysentery at age 30.

1320–Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan, Emperor Renzong of Yuan, dies in China at age 34. His death created two decades of political turmoil.

1360–During the siege of Rheims, King Edward III of England pays £16 (approximately $4,000) to ransom skilled soldier, Geoffrey Chaucer, from French captivity. The King will be forced to pay an even higher ransom for Chaucer’s horse, as a well-trained war horse was considered far less expendable than mere soldiers.

1456–Vladislaus II of Hungary is born in Kraków, Kingdom of Poland.

1457–The Unitas Fratrum is established in the village of Kunvald, on the Bohemian-Moravian borderland. It is to date the second oldest Protestant denomination.

1476–Forces of the Catholic Monarchs engage the combined Portuguese-Castilian armies of Afonso V and Prince John at the Battle of Toro.

1562–Twenty-three Huguenots are massacred by Catholics in Wassy, France, marking the start of the French Wars of Religion.

1565–The city of Rio de Janeiro is founded in Brazil. The city was initially the seat of the Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro, a captaincy of the Portuguese Empire.

1628–Writs issued in February by Charles I of England mandate that every county in England (not just seaport towns) pay ship tax by this date.

1633–Samuel de Champlain reclaims his role as commander of New France on behalf of Cardinal Richelieu.

1642–Georgeana, Massachusetts (now known as York, Maine), becomes the first incorporated city in the U.S.

1683–The 6th Dalai Lama is born in Tawang Town, Tibet (present-day India).

1692–The Salem Witch Hunt begins as Sarah Goode, Sarah Osborne, and Tituba, an Indian slave from Barbados, are charged with the illegal practice of witchcraft in Salem Village, Massachusetts. Unlike their European counterparts, the victims of the American witch trials will be hanged rather than burned.

1697–Scientist, Francesco Redi, dies in his sleep in Pisa, Italy, at age 71. Many historians and scientists consider him the father of modern parasitology and the founder of experimental biology.

1700–Sweden introduces its own Swedish calendar, in an attempt to gradually merge into the Gregorian calendar, reverts to the Julian calendar on this date in 1712, and introduces the Gregorian calendar on this date in 1753.

1713–The siege and destruction of Fort Neoheroka begins, during the Tuscarora War in North Carolina, opening up the colony's interior to European colonization.

1780–Pennsylvania becomes the first state in America to abolish slavery (for newborns only).

1781–The Continental Congress adopts the Articles of Confederation.

1784–E. Kidner opens the first cooking school in the U.K.

1790–The first United States census is established.

1792–Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor, dies suddenly in Vienna, Austria, at age 44. Some claim he was poisoned or secretly murdered.

1796–The Dutch East India Company is nationalized by the Batavian Republic.

1803–Ohio becomes the 17th state in the United States of America.

1805–Justice Samuel Chase is acquitted at the end of his impeachment trial by the U.S. Senate.

1807–Religious leader, Wilford Woodruff, Sr., is born in Farmington, Connecticut. He was the fourth President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Woodruff's large collection of diaries provides an important record of Latter Day Saint history, and his decision to formally end the practice of plural marriage among the members of the LDS Church in 1890, brought to a close one of the most difficult periods of church history. He did, however, have seven wives and 34 children.

1811–Leaders of the Mamluk Dynasty are killed by Egyptian ruler, Muhammad Ali.

1815–Napoleon returns to France from his banishment on Elba, as the start of the Hundred Days.

1815–Georgetown University's congressional charter is signed into law by President James Madison.

1836–A convention of delegates from 57 Texas communities convenes in Washington-on-the-Brazos, Texas, to deliberate independence from Mexico.

1845–President John Tyler signs a bill authorizing the U.S. to annex the Republic of Texas.

1847–The state of Michigan abolishes capital punishment (except for treason against the state).

1852–Archibald Montgomerie, 13th Earl of Eglinton, is appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.

1854–German psychologist, Friedrich Eduard Beneke, disappears. Two years later his remains are found in a canal near Charlottenburg, Germany.

1854–The ship, the S.S. City of Glasgow, leaves the harbor in Liverpool, England, and is never seen again.

1865–Anna Pavlovna Romanova, monarch of Russia, dies in The Hague, Netherlands, at age 70.

1867–Nebraska becomes the 37th state in the United States of America.

1868–The Pi Kappa Alpha Fraternity is founded at the University of Virginia.

1869–U.S. postage stamps showing scenes and pictures are issued for the first time.

1870–Marshal F.S. López dies during the Battle of Cerro Corá, marking the end of the Paraguayan War.

1872–Yellowstone National Park is established as the world's first national park.

1873–E. Remington and Sons, of Ilion, New York, begin the manufacture of the first practical typewriter. The heavy black clunkers soon become fixtures in offices across the country. It would be another half-century before electric typewriters make their appearance.

1873–Henry Comstock discovers the Comstock Lode in Virginia City, Nevada.

1880–Biographer and literary critic, Giles Lytton Strachey, is born in London, England. A founding member of the Bloomsbury Group and author of Eminent Victorians, he is best known for establishing a new form of biography in which psychological insight and sympathy are combined with irreverence and wit.

1881–The first Minnesota State Capitol burns down during a fire.

1886–The Anglo-Chinese School in Singapore is founded by Bishop William Oldham.

1893–Electrical engineer, Nikola Tesla, gives the first public demonstration of radio in St. Louis, Missouri.

1894–The Blackpool Tower opens in Blackpool, England.

1896–Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity.

1896–An Ethiopian army defeats an outnumbered Italian force, ending the First Italo-Ethiopian War.

1901–The Australian Army is formed.

1904–Bandleader, (Alton) Glenn Miller, the King of Swing, is born in Clarinda, Iowa. He was the best-selling recording artist from 1939 to 1943, leading one of the best known big bands. the Glenn Miller Orchestra. Miller's notable recordings include In the Mood, Moonlight Serenade, Pennsylvania 6-5000, Chattanooga Choo Choo, String of Pearls, At Last, (I've Got a Gal In) Kalamazoo, Tuxedo Junction, and Little Brown Jug.

1906–Pham Van Dong, who served as Prime Minister in Hanoi for more than three decades, is born in Quang Ngai province, Indochina. An intellectual, Dong was considered close to Vietnam's late revolutionary leader, Ho Chi Minh.

1910–The deadliest avalanche of record in the U.S. thunders down the mountains near Wellington Station, Washington, sweeping three huge locomotive train engines and some passenger cars that are snowbound on the grade leading to Stevens Pass, over the side, into a canyon, and burying them under tons of snow. The avalanche claimed the lives of more than 100 people. The station house at Wellington was also swept away.

1910–Actor, David Niven, is born James David Graham Niven in London, England. He appeared in the films the Prisoner of Zenda, Wuthering Heights, Bachelor Mother, The Bishop’s Wife, The Moon Is Blue, Around the World in Eighty Days, Separate Tables, Please Don’t Eat the Daisies, The Guns of Navarone, The Pink Panther, Bedtime Story, and Casino Royale.

1912–Albert Berry makes the first parachute jump from a moving airplane.

1914–The Republic of China joins the Universal Postal Union.

1914–Novelist, Ralph Waldo Ellison, is born in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. His novel, Invisible Man, published in 1952, explores the theme of man's search for his identity and place in society, as seen from the perspective of an unnamed black man in the New York City of the 1930s. He was named after Ralph Waldo Emerson.

1917–The Zimmermann Telegram is reprinted in newspapers across the United States after the U.S. government releases its unencrypted text. This was a secret diplomatic communication issued from the German Foreign Office in January 1917, which proposed a military alliance between Germany and Mexico in the event of the United States entering World War I against Germany. The proposal was intercepted and decoded by British intelligence.

1917–Poet and pacifist, Robert Lowell, is born Robert Traill Spence Lowell IV in Boston, Massachusetts. He was born into a Boston Brahmin family that could trace its origins back to the Mayflower. He won the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry in 1947 and 1974, and he would become America’s third Poet Laureate.

1919–The March 1st Movement begins in Korea under Japanese rule.

1921–The Australian cricket team captained by Warwick Armstrong becomes the first team to complete a whitewash of The Ashes, something that would not be repeated for 86 years.

1922–Mad magazine publisher, William (Maxwell) Gaines, is born in Brooklyn, New York. His comic books, including Tales from the Crypt, The Vault of Horror, Shock SuspenStories, Weird Science, and Two-Fisted Tales, featured stories with content above the level of the typical comic. Gaines was the son of Max Gaines, who as publisher of the All-American Comics division of DC Comics was also an influential figure in the history of comics.

1922–Israeli politician, Yitzhak Rabin, is born in Jerusalem, Mandatory Palestine. He was the fifth Prime Minister of Israel (1974-1977 and 1992 until his assassination in 1995).

1926–Actor, Cesare Danova, is born Cesare Deitinger in Bergamo, Italy. He was cast extensively on American TV and appeared in the films Crossed Swords, Don Juan, Catch Me If You Can, Tender is the Night, Cleopatra, Gidget Goes to Rome, Viva Las Vegas, and Mean Streets.

1926–Pete Rozelle, National Football League commissioner, is born in South Gate, California. Rozelle is credited with making the NFL into one of the most successful sports leagues in the world.

1927–Singer, Harry Belafonte, is born Harold George Bellanfanti, Jr. in Harlem, New York. One of the most successful Caribbean American pop stars in history, he was dubbed the "King of Calypso" for popularizing the Caribbean musical style with an international audience in the 1950s. He is best known for his hit, The Banana Boat Song. He appeared in the films Bright Road, Carmen Jones, The World, the Flesh and the Devil, Buck and the Preacher, Uptown Saturday Night, and White Man’s Burden. His daughter is actress, Shari Belafonte.

1932–The infant son of Anne and Charles Lindbergh, Charles Augustus Lindbergh III, is kidnapped from their home near Hopewell, New Jersey.

1933–Bank holidays are declared in six states, to prevent a run on banks.

1934–Actress, Joan (Ann) Hackett, is born in East Harlem, New York. She appeared in the films The Group, Will Penny, Support Your Local Sheriff, How Awful About Allan, Five Desperate Women, The Last of Sheila, The Terminal Man, One Trick Pony, and Only When I Laugh. She was married to actor, Richard Mulligan.

1935–Actor, Robert Conrad, is born Conrad Robert Norton Falk in Chicago, Illinois. He is best known for his starring roles in the TV series Hawaiian Eye, The Wild Wild West, and The Black Sheep Squadron. He appeared in the films Palm Springs Weekend, Young Dillinger, The Bandits, Murph the Surf, Sudden Death, The Lady in Red, and Jingle All the Way.

1936–Hoover Dam, near Las Vegas, Nevada, is completed.

1936–A strike occurs aboard the S.S. California, leading to the demise of the International Seamen's Union and the creation of the National Maritime Union.

1937–The first permanent automobile license plates are issued.

1939–An Imperial Japanese Army ammunition dump explodes at Hirakata, Osaka, Japan, killing 94 people.

1941–During World War II, Bulgaria signs the Tripartite Pact, allying itself with the Axis powers.

1941–The first U.S. commercial FM radio station (now known as WSM-FM) goes on the air in Nashville, Tennessee. FM radio would help to revolutionize popular music in the early 1970s.

1941–”Captain America” makes his first appearance in a comic book.

1942–Japanese forces land on Java (the main island of the Dutch East Indies) at Merak and Banten Bay (Banten), Eretan Wetan (Indramayu), and Kragan (Rembang).

1942–Film producer, (Howard) Peter Guber, is born in Boston, Massachusetts. His films include The Deep, Midnight Express, An American Werewolf in London, Missing, Six Weeks, Flashdance, The Color Purple, The Witches of Eastwick, Innerspace, Gorillas in the Mist, Rain Man, This Boy’s Life, and With Honors.

1944–Roger (Harry) Daltrey, of The Who, is born in Hammersmith, London, England. Daltrey has long been known as one of the most charismatic of rock's front-men and famed for his powerful voice and energetic stage presence. The Who’s hits include My Generation, I Can't Explain, Substitute, I'm a Boy, Happy Jack, Pictures of Lily, Pinball Wizard, and Won't Get Fooled Again. He appeared in the films Tommy, Lisztomania, and McVicar.

1944–Manfred Mann vocalist, Michael (David) d'Abo, is born in Betchworth, Surrey, England. His daughter is actress, Olivia d'Abo.

1945–Adolf Hitler orders the destruction of all Germany, as he believes it is unworthy of surviving him. His order mandates the destruction not only of military installations, but of all stores, industries, transportation, and communication installations. Nothing is to be left to fall into enemy hands.

1945–Actor, Dirk Benedict, is born Dirk Niewoehner in Helena, Montana. He is best known for his starring roles in the TV shows The A-Team and Battlestar Galactica. He appeared in the films Sssssss, Scavenger Hunt, Body Slam, and Alaska.

1946–After 252 years, the British government takes control of the Bank of England.

1946–Actress, Lana Wood, is born Svetlana Nikolaevna Zakharenko in Santa Rosa, California. She appeared in the films The Searchers, Five Finger Exercise, The Girls on the Beach, For Singles Only, Diamonds Are Forever, and Speedtrap. She is the younger sister of actress, Natalie Wood.

1947–The International Monetary Fund begins financial operations.

1947–Actor, Alan Thicke, is born Alan Willis Jeffery in Kirkland Lake, Ontario, Canada. He is best known for the role of Jason Seaver on the TV series Growing Pains. Thicke hosted his own popular talk show in Canada during the early 1980s, called The Alan Thicke Show. Based on the success of that show, Thicke was signed to do an American syndicated late-night talk show Thicke of the Night. He was married to singer-actress, Gloria Loring. He is the father of pop singer, Robin Thicke.

1949–Joe Louis retires as Heavyweight Boxing Champion.

1949–The first 45 rpm record is issued by RCA. It is Texarkana Baby by Eddy Arnold.

1950–Klaus Fuchs is convicted of spying for the Soviet Union by disclosing top secret atomic bomb data.

1953–Joseph Stalin collapses, having suffered a stroke. He will die four days later.

1954–Four Puerto Rican nationalists open fire in the U.S. House of Representatives injuring five members of Congress.

1954–The U.S. explodes a 15-megaton hydrogen bomb at Bikini Atoll, resulting in the worst radioactive contamination ever caused by the American government. Oddly, this becomes the inspiration for the name of the famous bikini swimsuit.

1954–Actress, Catherine Bach, is born Catherine Bachman in Warren, Ohio. She is known for the role of Daisy Duke in the TV series The Dukes of Hazzard. She appeared in the films The Midnight Man, Thunderbolt and Lightfoot, Hustle, Cannonball Run II, and Driving Force.

1954–Country singer, Janis Gill, of Sweethearts of the Rodeo, is born in Torrance, California.

1954–Actor-director, Ron Howard, is born Ronald William Howard in Duncan, Oklahoma. As an actor, he is best known for his roles on the TV shows The Andy Griffith Show and Happy Days. He appeared in the films Five Minutes to Live, The Music Man, The Courtship of Eddie’s Father, Village of the Giants, American Graffiti, Eat My Dust, The Shootist, and Grand Theft Auto. As a director, his films include Splash, Cocoon, Gung Ho, Parenthood, Backdraft, Far and Away, Apollo 13, Ransom, A Beautiful Mind, Cinderella Man, and The Da Vinci Code. His father was actor, Rance Howard; his brother is actor, Clint Howard; and his daughter is actress, Bryce Dallas Howard.

1955–An Israeli assault on Gaza kills 48 people.

1956–The International Air Transport Association finalizes a draft of the Radiotelephony spelling alphabet for the International Civil Aviation Organization (i.e., Alpha, Bravo, etc.).

1956–Actor, (James) Timothy Daly, is born in New York, New York. He has appeared in the films An Enemy of the People, Diner, Just the Way You Are, Made in Heaven, and Year of the Comet. His sister is actress, Tyne Daly.

1957–John Lennon decides to form a skiffle group, so he and friend, Pete Shotton, form The Blackjacks. The name lasts only about a week, when they decide to change their name to The Quarry Men. Both John and Pete attend Quarry Bank High School for Boys. The first complete line-up of The Quarry Men includes John Lennon (guitar), Pete Shotton (washboard), Colin Hanton (drums), Eric Griffiths (guitar), Rod Davis (banjo), and Bill Smith (tea-chest bass).

1957–Chess Records releases Chuck Berry's School Days.

1958–Samuel Alphonsus Stritch is appointed Pro-Prefect of the Propagation of Faith, becoming the first U.S. member of the Roman Curia.

1958–Buddy Holly and the Crickets begin their only U.K. tour, a 25-date, twice-nightly package with Des O'Connor, Gary Miller, The Tanner Sisters, and Ronnie Keene and his Orchestra.

1960–At the Friedburg Army Base in Germany, the U.S. Army hosts a “Farewell Elvis” press conference. Elvis Presley is due to be discharged on March 5th.

1961–President John F. Kennedy establishes the Peace Corps.

1961–Uganda becomes self-governing and holds its first elections.

1962–An American Airlines 707 plunges nose first into Jamaica Bay, New York, killing 95 people.

1962–Grunge rocker, Bill Leen, of The Gin Blossoms, is born in Tempe, Arizona.

1962–The first K-Mart superstore opens.

1962–A joint U.S./U.K. nuclear test experiment takes place in Nevada.

1964–The volcano, Villarrica, begins a strombolian eruption causing lahars that destroy half of the town of Coñaripe, Chile.

1965–Petula Clark's first U.S. hit, Downtown, is awarded a gold record.

1966–The Ba'ath Party takes power in Syria.

1966–The Venera 3 Soviet space probe crashes on Venus, becoming the first spacecraft to land on another planet's surface.

1966–A documentary film of The Beatles' Shea Stadium concert of August 15, 1965, is broadcast in the U.K. by the BBC.

1966–In Liverpool, over 100 youths barricade themselves inside the recently closed Cavern Club, where The Beatles began their amazing journey to international fame. They are upset about the club closing due to bankruptcy.

1968–Country singer, Johnny Cash, marries June Carter.

1969–Dick James sells his 23% share of Northern Songs to Associated Television (ATV), owned by Sir Lew Grade. Northern Songs holds publishing rights to nearly every Lennon-McCartney composition. James makes the sale without notifying The Beatles or giving them first refusal on buying his shares. At this point, neither ATV nor The Beatles own enough shares to grab majority control of the company. A fierce competition to buy up available shares begins, and Paul McCartney secretly buys so many shares that he soon has 100,000 shares more than John Lennon. The rift between John and Paul prevents them from acting with any power against ATV, and they will lose control over Northern Songs. They liquidate their shares, retaining no control whatsoever over the bulk of their song catalog.

1969–The New York Yankees' Mickey Mantle announces his retirement from baseball.

1969–During a performance at Miami's Dinner Key Auditorium, Jim Morrison, of The Doors, is arrested for exposing himself during the show. He didn’t actually do it; no one saw him do it; and the other band members know he didn’t do it. Morrison is later tried and sentenced to eight months of hard labor, a sentence his lawyers were still appealing when the rock star dies in 1971. Though no doubt drunk, disinterested, and verbally taunting the audience, according to firsthand accounts, it is generally thought that Morrison was innocent of the major charge, sparking talk of a posthumous public vindication by Florida officials.

1970–Charles Manson's album, Lie, is released.

1970–A promotional film of The Beatles singing Two of Us and Let It Be is shown on U.S. television on The Ed Sullivan Show. It's the last time The Beatles appear on the show that brought them astronomical fame in America.

1971–A bomb explodes in a men's room in the U.S. Capitol building and the Weather Underground claim responsibility.

1971– President of Pakistan, Yahya Khan, indefinitely postpones the pending national assembly session, precipitating massive civil disobedience in East Pakistan.

1972–Intel introduces the 8008 processor.

1972–The Thai province of Yasothon is created after being split off from the Ubon Ratchathani Province.

1973–The Robert Joffrey Dance Company opens with a unique presentation in New York City. The show features music of The Beach Boys in “Deuce Coupe Ballet.”

1973–Elvis Presley's manager, Colonel Tom Parker, sells all of Elvis' back catalog recordings to RCA for a lump sum of $5.4 million, forgoing all future royalties, in an apparent attempt to garner the King some quick, much-needed cash. Parker also renegotiates Elvis into a 50-50 split on new royalties, and lands another seven-year, 14-album deal with RCA for $3.5 million.

1973–Black September storms the Saudi embassy in Khartoum, Sudan, resulting in the assassination of three Western hostages.

1974–Seven people are indicted in connection with the Watergate break-in on charges of conspiring to obstruct justice.

1974–Jazz pianist, Bobby Timmons, dies of cirrhosis in New York, New York, at age 38. He was a sideman in Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers and was also a member of Cannonball Adderley's band.

1975–Color television transmission begins in Australia.

1975–The 17th Annual Grammy Awards announces its winners. Record of the Year: Olivia Newton-John for I Honestly Love You; Album of the Year: Stevie Wonder (producer & artist) for Fulfillingness' First Finale; Song of the Year: Alan Bergman, Marilyn Bergman & Marvin Hamlisch (songwriters) for The Way We Were; Best Vocal Performance, Male: Stevie Wonder for Fulfillingness' First Finale; Best Vocal Performance, Female: Olivia Newton-John for I Honestly Love You; Best Performance by a Vocal Group: Paul McCartney & Wings for Band on the Run; Best Country & Western Performance: Ronnie Milsap for Please Don't Tell Me How the Story Ends; Best Rhythm & Blues Performance: Rufus for Tell Me Something Good; Best Instrumental Performance: Marvin Hamlisch for The Entertainer; Best New Artist: Marvin Hamlisch. The ceremonies are held at the Uris Theatre, New York, New York. There is no host. John Lennon makes a rare appearance as a presenter of “Record of the Year.”

1977–Bank of America adopts the name VISA for their credit cards.

1977–The United States extends its territorial waters to 200 miles.

1977–In Santa Monica, California, Sara Lowndes Dylan files for divorce from her husband of 11 years, Bob Dylan. The divorce is granted in June and she is given custody of their five children and possession of their million-dollar home.

1978–The body of silent film star, Charlie Chaplin, is stolen from a Corsier, Switzerland, cemetery and held for ransom by Galtcho Ganav and Romnan Wardas. The actor's body was later recovered.

1980–An unusually large tornado, 500 yards in width at times, kills one person and causes $6 million damage near Fort Lauderdale, Florida.

1980–Wilhelmina Cooper, high-fashion model and agency owner, dies of lung cancer in Greenwich, Connecticut, at age 40.

1980–Folk singer and folk song collector, John Jacob Niles, dies in Lexington, Kentucky, at age 87. Called the "Dean of American Balladeers," Niles was an important influence on the American folk music revival of the 1950s and 1960s, with Joan Baez, Burl Ives, and Peter, Paul & Mary, among others, recording his songs.

1981–Provisional Irish Republican Army member, Bobby Sands, begins a hunger strike at the Maze Prison in Northern Ireland. He will die 65 days later.

1981–NBC-TV airs Elvis and the Beauty Queen, a TV movie about his final years and his relationship with girlfriend, Linda Thompson. Don Johnson plays Elvis.

1983–Swatch introduces its first fashion watches.

1983–Under the Freedom of Information Act, Jon Wiener or the University of California, Irvine, obtains heavily censored documents relating to FBI actions against John Lennon in 1972. Wiener will sue the FBI to obtain the deleted information, using what he has already received to write his 1984 book Come Together. In 1991, a court will rule that the FBI must turn over the deleted files to Wiener.

1984–The USSR conducts a nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh.

1984–Actor, Jackie Coogan, dies of cardiac arrest in Santa Monica, California, at age 69. He began his movie career as a child actor in silent films. Many years later, he became known for the role of Uncle Fester on the 1960s sitcom The Addams Family. It was due to his mistreatment by his parents that the Coogan Act was established to protect child actors. He appeared in the films The Kid, Peck’s Bad Boy, Oliver Twist, Little Robinson Crusoe, Tom Sawyer, Huckleberry Finn, Kilroy Was Here, The Actress, The Proud Ones, The Buster Keaton Story, The Joker Is Wild, High School Confidential, The Beat Generation, Girl Happy, A Fine Madness, and The Shakiest Gun in the West. He was married to actress, Betty Grable.

1985–Singer, Liza Minnelli, enters Betty Ford Drug Center for drug treatment.

1987–Actress, Cybill Shepherd, marries Dr. Bruce Oppenheim.

1987–Singer, Kesha, is born Kesha Rose Sebert in Los Angeles, California. Kesha's musical influences consist of hip hop, punk rock, 1980s pop, dance music, and classic country.

1988–Comedian, Joe Besser, dies of heart failure in North Hollywood, California, at age 80. He is best known for his brief stint as a member of The Three Stooges in movie short subjects of 1957-1959. He appeared in the films Africa Screams, The Desert Hawk, Say One for Me, The Errand Boy, and Which Way to the Front?

1989–The United States becomes a member of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works.

1990–Steve Jackson Games is raided by the U.S. Secret Service, prompting the later formation of the Electronic Frontier Foundation.

1991–Uprisings against Saddam Hussein begin in Iraq, leading to the death of more than 25,000 people, mostly civilian.

1991–Director Oliver Stone's biopic, The Doors, starring Val Kilmer as Jim Morrison, opens in Los Angeles, California.

1991–Scientist and businessman, Edwin H. Land, dies in Cambridge, Massachusetts, at age 81. Upon his death, his personal assistant shredded his personal papers and notes. He co-founded the Polaroid Corporation, maker of the Polaroid Land Camera.

1992–Bosnia and Herzegovina declares its independence from Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

1993–Record producer, George Martin, commenting on The Beatles' unreleased tape archive at Abbey Road Studios, states, “I've listened to all of the tapes. There are one or two interesting variations, but otherwise it's all junk. Couldn't possibly release it.” Yet eight months later, he will announce that he plans to use virtually all of it in the documentary series The Beatles Anthology.

1994–The U.S. Senate rejects a “balanced budget” amendment to the U.S. Constitution.

1994–The 36th Annual Grammy Awards announces its winners. Record of the Year: Whitney Houston for I Will Always Love You; Album of the Year: Whitney Houston, Babyface, BeBe Winans, David Cole, David Foster, L.A. Reid, Narada Michael Walden, Robert Clivilles, Clive Davis (producers) for The Bodyguard: Original Soundtrack Album; Song of the Year: Alan Menken and Tim Rice (songwriters) for A Whole New World; Best Vocal Performance, Male: Sting for If I Ever Lose My Faith in You; Best Vocal Performance, Female: Whitney Houston for I Will Always Love You; Best Performance by a Vocal Group: Peabo Bryson & Regina Belle for A Whole New World; Best Country & Western Performance: Dwight Yoakam for Ain't That Lonely Yet; Best Rhythm & Blues Performance: Ray Charles for A Song for You; Best Rock Performance: Meat Loaf for I'd Do Anything for Love (But I Won't Do That); Best Rap Performance: Dr. Dre for Let Me Ride; Best Instrumental Performance: Branford Marsalis & Bruce Hornsby for Barcelona Mona; Best New Artist: Toni Braxton. The ceremonies are held at Radio City Music Hall, New York, New York. The host is Garry Shandling. Soul singer, Aretha Franklin, is honored with a Lifetime Achievement Award.

1994–Pop singer, Justin (Drew) Bieber, is born in London, Ontario, Canada. Teen idol, Bieber, released his debut EP, My World, in November 2009. It was certified platinum in America. He became the first pop artist to have seven songs from a debut record to chart on the Billboard Hot 100. With a global fan base, termed as "Beliebers," and over 40 million followers on Twitter, Bieber was named by Forbes magazine as one of the top ten most powerful celebrities in the world, ranking third in both 2011 and 2012, and ninth in 2013. Throughout 2014, Beiber had a series of run-ins with law enforcement, leading to comments that Bieber's image has been transformed from “boy-next-door” to “bad boy.” He was also labeled “2014's most annoying celebrity.”

1995–Yahoo! is incorporated by Jerry Yang and David Filo. One of the first search engines on the Internet, it was originally called “Jerry and David's guide to the World Wide Web.” The word "yahoo" is an acronym for “Yet Another Hierarchical Officious Oracle.”

1995–The 37th Annual Grammy Awards announces its winners. Record of the Year: Sheryl Crow for All I Wanna Do; Album of the Year: Tony Bennett (artist) for MTV Unplugged: Tony Bennett; Song of the Year: Bruce Springsteen for Streets of Philadelphia; Best Vocal Performance, Male: Elton John for Can You Feel The Love Tonight; Best Vocal Performance, Female: Sheryl Crow for All I Wanna Do; Best Performance by a Vocal Group: All-4-One for I Swear; Best Country & Western Performance: Vince Gill for When Love Finds You; Best Rhythm & Blues Performance: Boyz II Men for I'll Make Love to You; Best Rock Performance: Bruce Springsteen for Streets Of Philadelphia; Best Rap Performance: Queen Latifah for U.N.I.T.Y.; Best Instrumental Performance: Booker T. & the M.G.'s for Cruisin'; Best New Artist: Sheryl Crow. The ceremonies are held at the Shrine Auditorium, Los Angeles, California. The host is Paul Reiser.

1996–The new toll-free 888 area code is introduced. The original 800 area code had become too full.

1998–Titanic is the first film to gross over $1 billion worldwide.

2000–The Constitution of Finland is rewritten.

2002–Operation Anaconda begins the U.S. invasion of eastern Afghanistan.

2002–The peseta is discontinued as the official currency of Spain and is replaced by the euro.

2002–The Envisat environmental satellite successfully reaches an orbit 500 miles above the Earth on its 11th launch, carrying the heaviest payload to date at 8.5 tons.

2002–Actor, Edward James Olmos, divorces actress, Lorraine Bracco, after eight years of marriage.

2003–The management of the U.S. Customs Service and the U.S. Secret Service are moved to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security.

2003–The International Criminal Court holds its inaugural session in The Hague, Netherlands.

2004–Terry Nichols is convicted of state murder charges and of being an accomplice to the Oklahoma City bomber, Timothy McVeigh.

2004–Mohammed Bahr al-Uloum becomes President of Iraq.

2005–In Roper v. Simmons, the U.S. Supreme Court rules that the execution of juveniles found guilty of murder is unconstitutional.

2006–English-language Wikipedia publishes its one millionth article.

2006–The first confirmed case of the H5N1 Bird Flu virus is found in Geneva, Switzerland.

2006–Drummer, Johnny Jackson, dies from a stab wound inflicted by his girlfriend in Gary, Indiana, at age 54. He was the drummer for The Jackson 5 from their early Gary, Indiana, days until the end of their career at Motown. Despite having the same surname, he was not related to the Jacksons, although Motown presented him as their cousin. Singer, Janet Jackson, paid for his final expenses.

2006–Actor, Jack Wild, dies of oral cancer in Tebworth, Bedfordshire, England, at age 53. He struggled with alcoholism and tobacco addiction during most of his adult life. He is best known for his performances in both the stage and screen productions of the Lionel Bart musical, Oliver!, with Ron Moody, Mark Lester, Shani Wallis, and Oliver Reed. He is also known for the leading role of Jimmy in the 1969 children's TV series H.R. Pufnstuf.

2007–"Squatters" are evicted from Ungdomshuset in Copenhagen, Denmark, provoking riots.

2007–Tornadoes break out across the southern part of America, killing at least 20 people. Eight of the deaths are at a high school in Enterprise, Alabama.

2008–The Armenian police clash with a peaceful opposition rally protesting against allegedly fraudulent presidential elections 2008. Ten people are killed.

2012–Andrew Breitbart, conservative blogger and publisher, dies of heart failure in Los Angeles, California, at age 43. He was an American conservative author, and occasional guest commentator on radio and television. He owned Breitbart.com, a news organization website.

2013–Singer, Jewel Akins, dies from complications of back surgery in Inglewood, California, at age 79. His biggest hit was The Birds and the Bees in 1965.

2013–Actress, Bonnie Franklin, dies of pancreatic cancer in Los Angeles, California, at age 69. She is best known for her starring role in the TV sitcom One Day at a Time.

2014–At least 29 people are killed and 130 injured in a mass stabbing at Kunming Railway Station in China.

2016–Six New Jersey newspaper editorial boards declare former presidential candidate, Chris Christie, should resign his position as Governor of the state. The papers, all Gannett-owned, cite his endorsement of GOP presidential front-runner, Donald Trump, his absence from the state for all or part of 261 days in 2015 while campaigning, and his continued use of New Jersey funds for that purpose.

2016–U.S. astronaut, Scott Kelly, and Russian cosmonaut, Mikhail Korniyenko, return to Earth after 340 days aboard the International Space Station (ISS).

2016–Singer, Gayle McCormick, dies of cancer in St. Louis, Missouri, at age 67. She was the lead singer of the rock group, Smith, who had a big hit with Baby, It’s You.

2017–Scientists announce the finding of microfossils up to almost 4.3 billion years old, within rocks from the Hudson Bay shoreline in northern Quebec, Canada, that may represent the oldest-known evidence of life on Earth.

2017–The Dow Jones industrial average jumps 303 points to top 21,000 for the first time in its history. Optimism over corporate tax cuts, deregulation, and other business-friendly policy proposals reiterated by President Donald Trump during a speech before Congress fueled the stock market’s continuing rally.

2017–Baseball player, Shirley Palesh, dies in Wausau, Wisconsin, at age 87. She was a member of the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League between 1949 and 1950. She played with the Racine Belles, the Grand Rapids Chicks, and the Rockford Peaches. The popular film, A League of Their Own, is based on the female baseball players during World War II.

2018–Police in Oslo, Norway, say that the FBI is assisting in the investigation into two forged nominations of Donald Trump for the Nobel Peace Prize.

2018–According to a U.S. News & World Report study, California has the worst quality of life in the nation.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Romulus; King Edward III of England; the 6th Dalai Lama; Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor; Anna Pavlovna Romanova; an early Remington typewriter; David Niven; Harry Belafonte; Hoover Dam; Roger Daltry; Lana Wood; Joe Louis; Ron Howard; The Quarry Men; Petula Clark; Johnny Cash and June Carter; Jim Morrison in Miami 1969; I Honestly Love You by Olivia Newton-John; Wilhelmina Cooper; the book, Come Together; Kesha; George Martin; Meat Loaf; I'll Make Love to You by Boyz II Men; a 100 paseta coin; the Wikipedia logo; Andrew Breitbart; and Bonnie Franklin.

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