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1959–Writer and businessman, Duncan Hines, dies of lung cancer in Bowling Green, Kentucky, at age 78. While a traveling salesman, he published a list of his favorite restaurants and dishes called, Adventures in Good Eating. He also wrote a newspaper column and became a favorite American restaurant and lodging critic. But he is probably best known for his licensing of the Duncan Hines name for ice cream, cake mixes, and other products.

BC 474–Roman consul, Gnaeus Manlius Vulso, celebrates an ovation for concluding the war against Veii and securing a forty years' truce.

BC 44–Julius Caesar, Dictator of the Roman Republic, is stabbed to death in Rome, at age 55, by Marcus Junius Brutus, Gaius Cassius Longinus, Decimus Junius Brutus, and several other Roman senators on the Ides of March.

220–Chinese warlord, Cao Cao, dies in Luoyang, Henan, China, at age 65.

221–Liu Bei, a Chinese warlord and member of the Han royal house, declares himself Emperor of Shu-Han, claiming his legitimate succession to the Han Dynasty.

270–Saint Nicholas is born in Patara, Roman Empire (present-day Turkey). He was a historic 4th-century Christian Saint and Greek Bishop of Myra. Because of the many miracles attributed to his intercession, he is also known as Nikolaos the Wonderworker. He had a reputation for secret gift-giving, such as putting coins in the shoes of those who left them out for him. He thus became the model for Santa Claus, whose modern name comes from the Dutch “Sinterklaas,” itself from a series of elisions and corruptions of the transliteration of "Saint Nikolaos." The historical Saint Nicholas is commemorated and revered among Anglican, Catholic, Lutheran, and Orthodox Christians. In addition, some Baptist, Methodist, Presbyterian, and Reformed churches have been named in his honor. Saint Nicholas is the Patron Saint of sailors, merchants, archers, repentant thieves, children, brewers, pawnbrokers, and students in various cities and countries around Europe.

280–Sun Hao, of Eastern Wu, surrenders to Sima Yan and the Jin Dynasty begins.

351–Constantius II elevates his cousin Gallus to Caesar, putting him in charge of the Eastern part of the Roman Empire.

493–Odoacer, the first barbarian King of Italy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, is slain by Theoderic the Great, King of the Ostrogoths, while the two kings are feasting together.

752–Pope Zachary dies in Rome, Byzantine Empire, at age 73.

856–Michael III, Emperor of the Byzantine Empire, overthrows the regency of his mother, Empress Theodora, with support of the Byzantine nobility.

933–After a 10-year truce, German King Henry the Fowler defeats a Hungarian army at the Battle of Riade near the Unstrut river.

963–Byzantine Emperor, Romanos II, dies suddenly at age 25. It was rumored that he was poisoned by his wife, Theophano.

1147–The forces of Afonso I of Portugal capture Santarém.

1311–The Catalan Company defeats Walter V, Count of Brienne, to take control of the Duchy of Athens, a Crusader state in Greece.

1493–Christopher Columbus returns to Spain after his first New World voyage.

1564–Mughal Emperor Akbar abolishes "jizya" (per capita tax).

1638–Shunzhi, Emperor of China, is born Shengjing, Liaodong, China. A committee of Manchu princes chose him to succeed his father, Hong Taijiin, when he was five years old.

1672–Charles II of England issues the Royal Declaration of Indulgence.

1679–Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz describes binary numbering.

1744–French King Louis XV declares war on England.

1767–Andrew Jackson, the seventh U.S. President (1829-1837), is born near the then-unmarked border between North and South Carolina.

1778–Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island is discovered by Captain Cook.

1779–William Lamb, British Prime Minister (1835-1841), is born in London, England.

1781–During the American Revolutionary War, 1,900 British troops, under General Charles Cornwallis, defeat a mixed American force numbering 4,400 at the Battle of Guilford Court House near present-day Greensboro, North Carolina.

1783–In an emotional speech in Newburgh, New York, George Washington asks his officers not to support the Newburgh Conspiracy. The plea is successful and the threatened coup d'état never takes place.

1819–French physicist, Augustin-Jean Fresnel, wins a contest at the Academie des Sciences in Paris, France, by proving that light behaves like a wave.

1820–Maine becomes the 23rd state of the United States of America.

1827–The University of Toronto is chartered.

1827–Freedom's Journal, the first Black newspaper, begins publication.

1848–The Texas state legislature creates Santa Fe County, in an effort to establish civil power over New Mexico. In 1850, Texas will abandon its claim to eastern New Mexico.

1848–A revolution breaks out in Hungary and the Habsburg rulers are compelled to meet the demands of the Reform party.

1857–Christian Michelsen, the first Prime Minister of Norway (1905-1907), is born Peter Christian Hersleb Kjerschow Michelsen in Bergen, Norway.

1858–Botanist, Liberty Hyde Bailey, is born in South Haven, Michigan. He co-founded the American Society for Horticultural Science.

1864–In the American Civil War, a U.S. Navy fleet arrives at Alexandria, Louisiana, during the Red River Campaign.

1866–Patent office clerk, Johan Vaaler, is born in at Aurskog-Holand in Akershus, Norway. He invented the first type of paper clip.

1869–The Cincinnati Red Stockings become the first professional baseball team.

1873–Theatrical producer, Lee Shubert, is born Levi Shubert in Vladislavov, Russian Empire. He and his brother, Jacob, founded the Shubert Theatres.

1874–France and Vietnam sign the Second Treaty of Saigon, further recognizing the full sovereignty of France over Cochinchina.

1875–Archbishop of New York, John McCloskey, is named the first cardinal in the United States.

1877–The first ever official cricket test match is played: Australia vs. England at the MCG Stadium, in Melbourne, Australia.

1878–The restoration of the Scottish Catholic hierarchy (broken off back in 1603) takes place.

1887–Businesswoman, Marjorie Merriweather Post, is born in Springfield, Illinois. She founded General Foods. She was the daughter of C.W. Post and Ella Letitia Merriweather. At age 27, when her father died, she became the owner of the rapidly growing Postum Cereal Company, that was founded in 1895. Socialite, Barbara Hutton, was her niece.

1888–The Anglo-Tibetan War begins.

1889–Melville Reuben Bissell dies of pneumonia in Grand Rapids, Michigan, at age 45. He invented the carpet sweeper.

1891–Civil engineer, Sir Joseph William Bazalgette, dies in Wimbledon, London, at age 71. He designed the main sewer system for London, England.

1892–The Liverpool Football Club is founded by John Houlding.

1892–The escalator is patented in New York City by inventor, Jesse W. Reno.

1892–An automatic ballot booth (voting machine) is demonstrated in New York.

1898–English illustrator, Aubrey Beardsley, dies of tuberculosis in Menton, France, at age 25. He was the most controversial artist of the Art Nouveau era, renowned for his dark and perverse images and grotesque erotica, which were the main themes of his later work. His illustrations were in black and white against a white background.

1904–Actor, George Brent, is born George Brendan Nolan in Ballinasloe, County Galway, Ireland. He appeared in the films 42nd Street, The Painted Veil, Jezebel, Dark Victory, The Old Maid, The Spiral Staircase, Tomorrow Is Forever, and Death of Scoundrel. He was married to actress, Ann Sheridan.

1905–Comic actor, Joe E. Ross, is born Joseph Roszawikz in New York, New York. He is best known for his roles on the TV shows on The Phil Silvers Show and Car 54, Where Are You?

1906–Rolls, Royce, and Johnson form Rolls Royce, Ltd.

1907–Finland becomes the first European country to give women the right to vote.

1912–Sam Lightnin' Hopkins, is born Sam John Hopkins in Centerville, Texas. He was an American country blues singer, songwriter, and guitarist. Hopkins wrote, sang, and recorded a monumental catalogue of blues songs. He played on street corners, in small clubs, and eventually at Carnegie Hall.

1913–Woodrow Wilson gives the very first Presidential press conference.

1913–Actor, (Edward) MacDonald Carey, is born in Sioux City, Iowa. He is best known for the role of Dr. Tom Horton on the soap opera Days of Our Lives. He appeared in the films Shadow of a Doubt, Streets of Laredo, The Lawless, The Great Missouri Raid, Stranger at My Door, Blue Denim, These Are the Damned, Tammy and the Doctor, and End of the World.

1916–Six days after Mexican revolutionary, Pancho Villa, kills 17 Americans during a raid into U.S. territory, President Woodrow Wilson sends 6,600 U.S. troops over the border to capture Villa, dead or alive.

1916–Bandleader, Harry (Haag) James, is born in Albany, Georgia. He is best known as a trumpet playing band leader who led a big band from 1939 to 1946. His was the first "name band" to employ vocalist, Frank Sinatra, in 1939. His later band included drummer, Buddy Rich. He appeared in the films Hollywood Hotel, Springtime in the Rockies, Swing Fever, Two Girls and a Sailor, The Benny Goodman Story, and The Opposite Sex. He was married to actress, Betty Grable.

1917–Tsar Nicholas II of Russia abdicates the Russian throne and his brother, the Grand Duke, becomes Tsar.

1917–Writer, F. Scott Fitzgerald, joins the U.S. military as part of the 45th Infantry regiment. He is stationed first at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, where one of his superiors was the young Dwight Eisenhower.

1919–The American Legion forms in Paris, France.

1921–Talaat Pasha, former Grand Vizir of the Ottoman Empire and chief architect of the Armenian Genocide, is assassinated in Berlin, Germany, by 23-year-old Armenian, Soghomon Tehlirian.

1921–Screenwriter, Madelyn Pugh, is born in Indianapolis, Indiana. She was a television writer who became known in the 1950s for her work on the sitcom I Love Lucy. Pugh and Bob Carroll, Jr. are credited with helping create the “Lucy” character, which Lucille Ball played in one form or another for over 40 years. The pair also wrote episodes for The Lucy Show, Here's Lucy, The Lucille Ball-Desi Arnaz Show (aka The Lucy-Desi Comedy Hour), and Ball's final series Life With Lucy. She was married to TV producer, Quinn Martin.

1922–After Egypt gains nominal independence from the United Kingdom, Fuad I becomes King of Egypt.

1926–Dictator, Theodoros Pangalos, is elected President of Greece.

1927–The first Women's Boat Race, between the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge, takes place on The Isis in Oxford, England.

1927–Country singer, Carl (Milton) Smith, is born in Maynardville, Tennessee. He was one of Country's most successful male artists during the 1950s, with 30 Top 10 Billboard hits. He was married to country singer, June Carter.

1929–Boogie-woogie innovator, Pinetop Smith, is shot dead during a dance hall fight in Chicago, Illinois, at age 24. It is not known whether or not the bullet was meant for him.

1931–The SS Viking explodes off Newfoundland, killing 27 of the 147 people on board.

1931–Drummer, D.J. Fontana, is born Dominic Joseph Fontana in Shreveport, Louisiana. He is best known as the drummer for Elvis Presley. Over 14 years, he played on over 460 RCA recordings with Elvis. In 1983, he published a book in pictorial form titled D. J. Fontana Remembers Elvis.

1932–Astronaut, Alan Lavern Bean, is born in Wheeler, Texas. He made his first flight into space aboard Apollo 12, the second manned mission to land on the Moon, in November 1969.

1932–Record producer, Arif Mardin, is born in Istanbul, Turkey. He worked at Atlantic Records for over 30 years, as both an assistant, producer, arranger, studio manager, and vice president, before moving to EMI and serving as vice president and general manager of Manhattan Records. He produced many hit artists including The Rascals, Carly Simon, Petula Clark, Bette Midler, Barbra Streisand, The Bee Gees, Diana Ross, Queen, Patti Labelle, Aretha Franklin, Lulu, Anita Baker, Judy Collins, Phil Collins, Culture Club, Roberta Flack, Hall & Oates, Donny Hathaway, Norah Jones, George Benson, Melissa Manchester, The Manhattan Transfer, Modern Jazz Quartet, Willie Nelson, Leo Sayer, Dusty Springfield, David Bowie, Jewel, and Ringo Starr.

1933–The NAACP begins a coordinated attack on segregation and discrimination.

1933–Austrian Chancellor, Engelbert Dollfuss, keeps members of the National Council from convening, starting the Austrofascist dictatorship.

1933–Lawyer and judge, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, is born in Brooklyn, New York. She was appointed to the Supreme Court by President Bill Clinton and took the oath of office on August 10, 1993. She is the second female justice (after Sandra Day O'Connor) and the first Jewish female justice.

1933–Jazz pianist, Cecil (Percival) Taylor, is born in New York, New York. Classically trained, Taylor is generally acknowledged as one of the pioneers of free jazz.

1935–Actor, Judd (Seymore) Hirsch, is born in the Bronx, New York. He is best known for the role of Alex Rieger on the TV series Taxi. He appeared in the films Serpico, King of the Gypsies, Ordinary People, Without a Trace, The Goodbye People, Teachers, Running on Empty, Independence Day, and A Beautiful Mind.

1935–Evangelist, Jimmy Lee Swaggart, is born in Ferriday, Louisiana. Preaching from a flatbed trailer donated to him, Swaggart began full-time evangelistic work in 1955. In the late 1960s, Swaggart began a weekly 30-minute telecast over various local TV stations in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. By 1975, Swaggart's television ministry had expanded to more stations around the U.S., and he started using TV as his primary preaching forum. His cousins are Jerry Lee Lewis and Mickey Gilley.

1937–The first blood bank is established at Cook County Hospital in Chicago, Illinois.

1937–Horror writer, H.P. Lovecraft, dies of cancer of the small intestine in Providence, Rhode Island, at age 46. Virtually unknown and only published in pulp magazines before he died in poverty, he is now regarded as one of the most significant 20th-century authors in his genre. He achieved posthumous fame through his influential works of horror fiction. The definitive editions of his prose fiction (specifically At the Mountains of Madness and Other Novels, Dagon and Other Macabre Tales, The Dunwich Horror and Others, and The Horror in the Museum and Other Revisions) were published by Arkham House.

1938–Saudi Arabia begins producing oil, a natural resource that would transform a dust bowl of a nation into one of the wealthiest in the world.

1939–Germany occupies Czechoslovakia.

1939–Carpatho-Ukraine declares itself an independent republic, but is annexed by Hungary the next day.

1940–Phil Lesh, bass player for The Grateful Dead, is born Phillip Chapman Lesh in Berkeley, California. After the band's disbanding in 1995, Lesh continued the tradition of Grateful Dead family music with side project Phil Lesh and Friends, which paid homage to the Dead's music by playing their originals, common covers, and the songs of the members of his band.

1941–Philippine Airlines, the flag carrier of the Philippines, takes its first flight between Manila (from Nielson Field) to Baguio City with a Beechcraft Model 18, making it the first and oldest commercial airline in Asia operating under its original name.

1941–Mike Love, of The Beach Boys, is born Michael Edward Love in Los Angeles, California. Love sang the lead vocal on the group’s hits Surfin’ Safari, I Get Around, California Girls, Good Vibrations, and Do It Again. He is the cousin of band members Dennis, Carl, and Brian Wilson.

1942–Actress, Molly Peters, is born Mollie Peters in Walsham-le-Willows, Suffolk, England. She is best known as the “Bond Girl” Patricia Fearing in the James Bond film Thunderball. Molly was the first actress to take her clothes off on screen in the Bond series.

1943–In World War II, the Germans retake the city of Kharkov from the Soviet armies in bitter street fighting.

1943–Film director, David (Paul) Cronenberg, is born in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. He is one of the principal originators of what is commonly known as the “body horror” or “venereal horror” genre. This type of film explores the fear people have of bodily transformation and infection. His films include Shivers, Scanners, Videodrome, The Dead Zone, The Fly, Dead Ringers, Naked Lunch, and Crash.

1944–Sly Stone, is born Sylvester Stewart in Denton, Texas. He was the founding member of Sly and the Family Stone.

1945–In World War II, Soviet forces begin an offensive to push Germans from Upper Silesia.

1945–Billboard magazine begins publishing a chart of the top albums. This was at a time when the word “album” actually made sense: a record album looked just like a photo album, but instead of heavy paper pages affixed with photos, the pages were paper record sleeves with 78 rpm records in them. Typically the albums held three to five two-sided records. The first chart's number one album was The King Cole Trio.

1945–The 17th Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: Going My Way; Best Actor: Bing Crosby for Going My Way; Best Actress: Ingrid Bergman for Gaslight; Best Director: Leo McCarey for Going My Way. The ceremonies are held at Grauman’s Chinese Theater, Hollywood, California. The hosts are John Cromwell and Bob Hope.

1946–Howard Scott, guitarist with the Latin funk group War, is born in San Pedro, California.

1947–Guitarist and composer, Ry Cooder, is born in Los Angeles, California. Before recording as a solo artist, Cooder played with Randy Newman, Little Feat, Van Morrison, Maria Muldaur, and The Rolling Stones, among others. Cooder's records were a staple of 1970s "free-form" FM radio programming, helping to inspire the country-stringband renaissance that continues to this day. Drawing on several traditions at once, Cooder typically wove together numerous American roots music forms, including country music, the blues, pop, and rock 'n' roll.

1949–Clothes rationing ends in Great Britain.

1951–Persia (present-day Iran) nationalizes the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company.

1952–In Cilaos, Réunion, 73 inches of rain falls in a 24-hour period, setting a new world record.

1954–Actor, Craig Wasson, is born in Eugene, Oregon. He is best known for his starring role in the 1984 Brian DePalma film Body Double. He appeared in the films The Boys in Company C, Rollercoaster, Carny, The Outsider, Four Friends, Ghost Story, A Nightmare on Elm Street, Malcolm X, and Akeelah and the Bee.

1955–The U.S. Air Force unveils its self-guided missile.

1955–Colonel Tom Parker becomes Elvis Presley's manager. Parker's previous show-business experience included managing country stars Hank Snow, Eddy Arnold, and Gene Autry. Parker will remain Presley’s manager until Elvis’ untimely death in the mid-1970s.

1955–Heavy metal rocker, Dee Snider, of Twisted Sister, is born Daniel Snider in Massapequa, New York. The band’s biggest hit is the teenage rock anthem We’re Not Gonna Take It. In 1985, a Senate hearing was instigated by the Parents Music Resource Center (PMRC), who wanted to introduce a parental warning system that would label all albums containing offensive material. The system was to include letters identifying the type of objectionable content to be found in each album. Dee Snider, John Denver, and Frank Zappa all testified against the censorship of the proposed warning system. The system was never implemented, but the result of the hearing brought about what is now the generic "Parental Advisory: Explicit Content" label. Snider appeared on two seasons of Donald Trump’s reality show Celebrity Apprentice, in 2012 and 2013.

1956–The Broadway musical, My Fair Lady, opens in New York City.

1957–Great Britain becomes the third nation to explode a nuclear bomb.

1957–Actress, Park Overall, is born in Nashville, Tennessee. She is known for her trademark heavy Southern accent. She appeared in the films Tainted, Biloxi Blues, Vibes, Mississippi Burning, Talk Radio, Kindergarten Cop, The Vanishing, and Undercover Blues.

1958–The USSR conducts an atmospheric nuclear test.

1959–Romance novel model, Fabio Lanzoni, is born in Milan, Italy. One of Fabio's most memorable advertising campaigns was for I Can't Believe It's Not Butter! He appeared in the films Scenes from a Mall, The Hard Way, Death Becomes Hder, Spy Hard, Zoolander, and Bubble Boy.

1959–Writer and businessman, Duncan Hines, dies of lung cancer in Bowling Green, Kentucky, at age 78. While a traveling salesman, he published a list of his favorite restaurants and dishes called, Adventures in Good Eating. He also wrote a newspaper column and became a favorite American restaurant and lodging critic. But he is probably best known for his licensing of the Duncan Hines name for ice cream, cake mixes, and other products.

1959–Saxophonist, Lester Young, dies from alcoholism in New York, New York, at age 45. Coming to prominence while a member of Count Basie's orchestra, Young was one of the most influential saxophone players of the day. In contrast to many of his hard-driving peers, he played with a relaxed, cool tone, using sophisticated harmonies. Known for his hip, introverted style, he invented or popularized much of the hipster jargon which came to be associated with jazz music.

1961–South Africa withdraws from the British Commonwealth of Nations.

1962–Five research groups simultaneously announce the discovery of anti-matter.

1962–Soul rocker, Terrence Trent D'Arby, is born Terrence Trent Howard in Manhattan, New York. His biggest hit was Wishing Well. In 2001, he legally changed his name to Sananda Maitreya, explaining that "Terence Trent D'Arby was dead... he watched his suffering as he died a noble death. After intense pain I meditated for a new spirit, a new will, a new identity." He continued to record music after relocating to Europe.

1963–Rocker, Bret Michaels, of Poison, is born Bret Michael Sychak in Butler, Pennsylvania. The band’s biggest hit was Every Rose Has Its Thorn. He starred in the VH1 reality show Rock of Love with Bret Michaels and its sequels, which inspired his successful solo album Rock My World. He was also the winning contestant on Donald Trump's reality show Celebrity Apprentice 3.

1964–The USSR conducts a nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh.

1964–President Lyndon Johnson asks for a “War on Poverty” initiative.

1964–Actress, Elizabeth Taylor, marries her fifth husband, actor, Richard Burton.

1965–President Lyndon B. Johnson, responding to the Selma crisis, tells U.S. Congress, "We shall overcome," while advocating the Voting Rights Act.

1965–T.G.I. Friday's opens its first restaurant in New York City.

1966–Racial riots erupt in the Watts section of East Los Angeles, California.

1966–California's attorney general condemns drug use in a statement to the State Senate Judiciary Committee.

1966–The 8th Annual Grammy Awards announces its winners. Record of the Year: Herb Alpert & the Tijuana Brass for A Taste of Honey; Album of the Year: Frank Sinatra for September of My Years; Song of the Year: Johnny Mandel & Paul Francis Webster (songwriters) for The Shadow of Your Smile; Best Vocal Performance, Male: Frank Sinatra for It Was a Very Good Year; Best Vocal Performance, Female: Barbra Streisand for My Name Is Barbra; Best Performance by a Vocal Group: The Anita Kerr Singers for We Dig Mancini; Best Country & Western Performance: Roger Miller for King of the Road; Best Rhythm & Blues Performance: James Brown for Papa's Got a Brand New Bag; Best Rock and Roll Performance: Roger Miller for King of the Road; Best Instrumental Performance: Herb Alpert & the Tijuana Brass for A Taste of Honey; Best New Artist: Tom Jones. The ceremonies are held Chicago, Illinois; Nashville, Tennessee; Los Angeles, California; and New York. There is no host.

1967–Marshal Arturo da Costa e Silva is sworn in as the President of Brazil.

1968–The U.S. Mint stops buying and selling gold.

1968–Life magazine calls Jimi Hendrix "the most spectacular guitarist in the world."

1968–Singer, Mark (Sayers) McGrath, of Sugar Ray, is born in Hartford, Connecticut.

1969–Actress, Kim Raver, is born Kimberly Jayne Raver in New York, New York. She is best known for her roles on TV’s Third Watch, 24, and Grey's Anatomy.

1970–The Expo '70 (world's fair) opens in Osaka, Japan.

1971–The CBS television network makes a major announcement, saying that it is dropping The Ed Sullivan Show from its program line-up after 23 years. The Sullivan show, a Sunday night fixture, presented everyone from The Beatles to a talking mouse named Topo Gigio, plus anyone and anything in between. It was the longest-running show in television history.

1972–The 14th Annual Grammy Awards announces its winners. Record of the Year: Carole King for It's Too Late; Album of the Year: Carole King for Tapestry; Song of the Year: Carole King (songwriter) for You've Got a Friend; Best Vocal Performance, Male: James Taylor for You've Got a Friend; Best Vocal Performance, Female: Carole King for Tapestry; Best Performance by a Vocal Group: The Carpenters for Carpenters; Best Country & Western Performance: Loretta Lynn & Conway Twitty for After the Fire Is Gone; Best Rhythm & Blues Performance: Ike & Tina Turner for Proud Mary; Best Instrumental Performance: Quincy Jones for Smackwater Jack; Best New Artist: Carly Simon. The ceremonies are held at the Felt Forum, New York City. There is no host.

1975–Actress, Eva (Jacqueline) Longoria, is born in Corpus Christi, Texas. She appeared in the films Carlita’s Secret, Harsh Times, The Sentinel, The Heartbreak Kid, Over Her Dead Body, Lower Learning, Arthur Christmas, and Crazy Kind of Love. She was married to General Hospital star, Tyler Christopher.

1975–Aristotle Onassis, Greek shipping magnate, dies of respiratory failure in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, at age 69. He amassed the world's largest privately owned shipping fleet and was one of the world's richest and most famous men.

1978–Somalia and Ethiopia sign a truce to end the Ethio-Somali War.

1978–The People's Republic of China performs a nuclear test at Lop Nor.

1978–The Alan Freed biopic, American Hot Wax, premieres in New York City. It features appearances and performances by Jerry Lee Lewis, Chuck Berry, and Screamin' Jay Hawkins.

1980–McDonald's test markets Chicken McNuggets in Knoxville, Tennessee.

1982–Actress, Theresa Saladana, is stabbed repeatedly by an obsessed fan.

1982–Bob Dylan is inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame.

1985–Larry Holmes knocks out David Bey in the 10 Round to win the Heavyweight Boxing Championship.

1985–The first Internet domain name is registered (symbolics.com).

1985–The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1986–Thirty-three people die when the Hotel New World collapses in Singapore.

1988–NASA reports an accelerated breakdown of the Earth’s ozone layer.

1990–Mikhail Gorbachev is elected as the first executive President of the Soviet Union.

1990–Football player, Tom Harmon, dies of a heart attack in Los Angeles, California, at age 70. He won the Heisman Trophy in 1940.

1991–The Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany comes into effect, granting full sovereignty to the Federal Republic of Germany.

1997–Actress, Gail Davis, dies of cancer in Los Angeles, California, at age 71. She is best known for her starring role in the 1950s TV Western series Annie Oakley. She appeared in the films If You Knew Susie, They Live by Night, The Far Frontier, Cow Town, Indian Territory, Texans Never Cry, Whirlwind, Flying Leathernecks, Two Tickets to Broadway, and The Old West.

1998–Pacific Bell Internet Services announces that a flood of junk e-mail has overwhelmed its message servers.

1998–Pediatrician and author, Benjamin Spock, dies in La Jolla, California, at age 94. He was the leading expert on baby and child care in the 1950s. His book The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care, published in 1946, is one of the best-sellers of all time: by 1998, it had sold more than 50 million copies and has been translated into 39 languages.

1999–The 14th Annual Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Induction Ceremony is held. This year’s inductees are: (Performers) Bruce Springsteen, Paul McCartney, Billy Joel, Curtis Mayfield, Del Shannon, Dusty Springfield, and The Staple Singers; (Non-Performer) George Martin; and (Early Influence) Charles Brown and Bob Wills and His Texas Playboys. The ceremony takes place at The Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York City. The biggest surprise comes with spontaneity at the night's end, when Paul McCartney joins in on an impassioned Let It Be.

2000–Television host and announcer, Durward Kirby, dies of congestive heart failure Fort Myers, Florida, at age 88. He is best known for appearances on The Garry Moore Show in the 1950s, and the TV show, Candid Camera, which he co-hosted with Allen Funt from 1961 through 1966.

2001–Actress, Ann Sothern, dies of heart failure in Ketchum, Idaho, at age 92. She appeared in the films Kid Millions, Maisie, Words and Music, A Letter to Three Wives, The Blue Gardenia, The Best Man, Lady in a Cage, Crazy Mama, The Manitou, and The Whales of August.

2004–The 19th Annual Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Induction Ceremony is held. This year’s inductees are: (Performers) Bob Seger, George Harrison, Jackson Browne, Prince, The Dells, ZZ Top, and Traffic; (Non-Performer) No awards given; and (Sidemen) No awards given. The Lifetime Achievement goes to Jann S. Wenner. The ceremony takes place at The Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York City. The posthumous induction of George Harrison by his Traveling Wilburys pals, Jeff Lynne and Tom Petty, weighs heavy, but the counterpoint is an uplifting musical tribute from a number of artists, including Harrison's son, Dhani.

2006–Remnants of Fats Domino's three pianos are discovered and saved by the Louisiana State Museum, after attempting to salvage his Ninth Ward home after Hurricane Katrina.

2007–Convicted murderer, Charles Harrelson, dies of a heart attack in Supermax prison, Florence ADMAX USP, Fremont County, Colorado, at age 68. He assassinated John H. Wood, Jr., who was the first federal judge to be killed in the 20th century.

2008–Stockpiles of obsolete ammunition explode at an ex-military ammunition depot in the village of Gerdec, Albania, killing 26 people.

2009–Actor, Ron Silver, dies of esophageal cancer in Manhattan, New York, at age 62. He appeared in the films Semi-Tough, Best Friends, The Entity, Lovesick, Silkwood, Garbo Talks, Blue Steel, Reversal of Fortune, Mr. Saturday Night, Timecop, and Ali.

2010–The 25th Annual Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Induction Ceremony is held. This year’s inductees are: (Performers) ABBA, Genesis, The Hollies, Jimmy Cliff, and The Stooges; (Non-Performer) David Geffen, Barry Mann and Cynthia Weil, Ellie Greenwich and Jeff Barry, Jesse Stone, Mort Shuman, and Otis Blackwell; (Sidemen) No awards given; and (Early Influence) No awards given. The ceremony takes place at the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum in Cleveland, Ohio.

2011–The Syrian civil war begins.

2013–Sixteen people are killed by a fireworks accident in Tlaxcala, Mexico.

2014–Scott Asheton, drummer for The Stooges, dies of a heart attack in Ann Arbor, Michigan, at age 64.

2014–Comedian, David Brenner, dies of cancer in Manhattan, New York, at age 78. He was the most frequent guest on The Tonight Show (Starring Johnny Carson) in the 1970s and 1980s, and was considered a pioneer in the genre of observational comedy.

2015–Mike Porcaro, of Toto, dies in his sleep from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in Los Angeles, California, at age 59.

2016–The Obama administration announces it is canceling plans to permit drilling for oil and gas off the southeastern U.S. Atlantic coast. A new plan involves 10 potential lease sales in the Gulf of Mexico and three off the coast of Alaska.

2016–A fire severely damages the 16th-century Wythenshawe Hall, near Manchester, England.

2017–An avalanche kills four skiers in Tyrol, Austria.

2017–Four suicide bombers kill at least two people and wound 16 others in Maiduguri, Nigeria.

2018–America's largest broadcaster, iHeartMedia (owner of 850 radio stations), files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy after accumulating $20 billion in debt.

2018–Tests show that the world's leading brands of bottled water are contaminated with micro-plastic particles that are likely seeping in during the packaging process. Researchers tested 250 bottles of water in Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Lebanon, Mexico, Thailand, and the United States. Plastic was identified in 93% of the samples, which included major name brands such as Aqua, Aquafina, Dasani, Evian, Nestle Pure Life, and San Pellegrino.

2018–Hillary Clinton slips in a hotel bathtub in Jaipur, India, fracturing her wrist. She was also photographed being caught two times by Secret Service agents as she was falling down the steps of the Jahaz Mahal Palace in Mandu. Clinton had to remove her shoes to finally make it down the steps.

2018–A pedestrian bridge stretching over the eight-lane Tamiami Trail on the Florida International University campus in Miami, Florida, collapses, killing at least six people and flattening eight cars. Nine people are rescued from the rubble and taken to the nearby Kendall Regional Medical Center. Construction of the bridge began in 2017, but it was not expected to open for pedestrian use until 2019.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Julius Caesar; Shunzhi, Emperor of China; William Lamb; Liberty Hyde Bailey; the Liverpool Football Club; Joe E. Ross; MacDonald Carey; Tsar Nicholas II of Russia; Carl Smith on Pure Country magazine; Arif Mardin; Judd Hirsch; H.P. Lovecraft; Mike Love; Ingrid Bergman in Gaslight; Craig Wasson; Dee Snider; Fabio; Bret Michaels; Jimi Hendrix; Tapestry by Carole King; poster for American Hot Wax; Dr. Benjamin Spock; and Ron Silver.

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