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2014–Internet blogger, Peter Oakley, dies of cancer in Bakewell, Derbyshire, England, at age 86. He was a pensioner better known by his pseudonym “geriatric1927” on the video sharing website, YouTube. In mid-2006, Oakley was the most subscribed-to user on YouTube. His rise to the #1 position took place in just over a week, and he displaced users who had been around since the site's launch over a year before. In November, he had 30,000 subscribers, and by June 2012, Oakley had recorded over 350 videos.

59–Roman Empress, Agrippina the Younger, dies in Misenum, at age 43. She was executed on the orders of her son, Emperor Nero. The circumstances that surround Agrippina's death are uncertain due to historical contradictions and anti-Nero bias. All surviving stories of Agrippina's death contradict themselves and each other, and are generally fantastical.

625–The Battle of Uhud takes place between Muslims and Pagans in Arabia.

851–Chinese historian and politician, Zhou Chi, dies after a long illness in (present-day) Mianyang, Sichuan, at age 58.

1022–Emperor Zhen Zong of Song dies at age 53.

1338–Emperor Go-Kogon of Japan is born.

1369–Peter of Castile dies after being attacked with a knife in Montiel, Kingdom of Toledo, at age 34.

1400–The Tran dynasty of Vietnam is deposed, after 175 years of rule, by Ho Quy Ly, a court official.

1430–Margaret of Anjou is born in Pont-à-Mousson, Duchy pg Lorraine. She was the wife of King Henry VI of England. As such, she was Queen of England from 1445 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471.

1513–Juan Ponce de Leon, a former governor of Puerto Rico, reaches Florida, naming it for Easter Sunday (Pascua Florida, flowering Paschal Feast). He claims the land for Spain.

1540–Waltham Abbey is surrendered to King Henry VIII of England. It is the last religious community to be closed during the Dissolution of the Monasteries.

1555–Pope Julius III dies in Rome, Lazio, Papal States, at age 67.

1559–Ethiopian Emperor, Gelawdewos, dies.

1568–The Peace of Longjumeau is signed, ending the second phase of the French Wars of Religion.

1670–François Dollier de Casson claims Lake Erie territory for France.

1708–James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth. The Firth of Forth is the estuary or firth of Scotland's River Forth, where it flows into the North Sea, between Fife to the north, and Lothian to the south. Geologically, it is a fjord, formed by the Forth Glacier in the last glacial period.

1743–Handel's Messiah Oratorio is given its first performance, at the Covent Garden Theatre, in London, England. When the "Hallelujah Chorus" began, King George the Second leaped to his feet, and everyone else in the theater followed suit, a tradition that is still observed today.

1775–Patrick Henry proclaims "Give me liberty or give me death," at St. John's Episcopal Church, Richmond, Virginia.

1794–Josiah Pierson patents a “cold-header” rivet machine.

1801–Tsar Paul I of Russia, dies at St. Michael's Castle in Saint Petersburg, Russia, at age 46. He is struck with a sword, strangled, and finally trampled to death in his bedroom.

1806–The Lewis & Clark Expedition reaches the Pacific Coast.

1836–The coin press is invented by Franklin Beale.

1839–The first recorded use of the term "ok" (oll korrect) is seen in The Boston Morning Post. The general fad is speculated to have existed in spoken or informal written U.S. English for a decade or more before its appearance in newspapers. OK's original presentation as "all correct" was later varied with spellings such as "Oll Korrect" or even "Ole Kurreck."

1840–A photographer named Draper takes the first successful daguerrotype photo of the Moon.

1848–The ship, John Wickliffe, arrives at Port Chalmers, carrying the first Scottish settlers for Dunedin, New Zealand. Otago province is founded.

1857–Elisha Otis installs the first elevator in New York City at 488 Broadway.

1857–Cooking expert, Fannie (Merritt) Farmer, is born in Boston, Massachusetts. She was the Director of the Boston Cooking School, founder of Miss Farmer's School of Cookery, and author of The Fannie Farmer Cook Book. She is often cited as the first cookbook author to introduce standard measurements.

1858–The streetcar is patented by Eleazer A. Gardner of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

1861–London's first tramcars, designed by Mr. Train of New York, go into operation in England.

1862–The First Battle of Kernstown, Virginia, marks the start of Stonewall Jackson's Valley Campaign. Although a Confederate defeat, the engagement distracts Federal efforts to capture Richmond.

1862–Nathaniel "Texas Jack" Reed is born in Madison County, Arkansas. He was a 19th-century outlaw responsible for many stagecoach, bank, and train robberies throughout the American Southwest during the 1880s and 1890s. He acted alone, but also led a gang, operating in the Rocky Mountains and Indian Territory. Reed is claimed to have been the last survivor of the 47 most notorious outlaws of Indian Territory.

1868–The University of California is founded in Oakland, California.

1869–Politician, Emilio Aguinaldo, is born in Kawit, Cavite, Captaincy General of the Philippines. He was the first President of the Philippines. He was a Filipino revolutionary and military leader.

1879–In the War of the Pacific, the first battle is fought between Chile and the joint forces of Bolivia and Peru.

1881–A gas lamp sets fire to an opera house in Nice, France, and 70 people die in the flames.

1885–In the Sino-French War, the Chinese are victorious in the Battle of Phu Lam Tao, near Hu’rng Hoa, northern Vietnam.

1888–The Football League, the world's oldest professional Association Football league, meets for the first time in England.

1889–The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community is established by Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad in Qadian, India.

1889–The free Woolwich Ferry officially opens in east London, England.

1891–The first jazz concert is held at Carnegie Hall in New York City.

1895–Astrologer, Dane Rudhyar, is born Daniel Chennevière in Paris, France. He was an author, humanistic astrologer, and the pioneer of modern transpersonal astrology. Rudhyar's astrological works were influential in the New Age movement of the 1960s and 1970s, especially among the hippies of San Francisco, California, where he lived and gave frequent lectures. Rudhyar regarded the “true early hippies” as potential harbingers of a New Age. His best known book is The Astrology of Personality: A Reformulation of Astrological Concepts and Ideals, in Terms of Contemporary Psychology and Philosophy.

1900–Psychologist, Erich (Seligmann) Fromm, is born in Frankfurt, Germany. He was a psychoanalyst, sociologist, and humanistic philosopher. He was associated with what became known as the Frankfurt School of critical theory.

1901–Emilio Aguinaldo, only President of the First Philippine Republic, is captured at Palanan, Isabela, by forces of General Frederick Funston.

1903–The Wright Brothers apply for a patent for the invention of one of their first airplanes.

1904–Actress, Joan Crawford, is born Lucille Fay LeSueur in San Antonio, Texas. She became one of Hollywood's most prominent movie stars and one of the highest paid women in America. Her films began losing money and by the end of the 1930s, she was labeled "Box Office Poison." Her career gradually improved in the early 1940s, and she made a major comeback in 1945. She appeared in the films Grand Hotel, Rain, Dancing Lady, Chained, The Gorgeous Hussy, The Women, Susan and God, A Woman’s Face, Above Suspicion, Hollywood Canteen, Mildred Pierce, Humoresque, Daisy Kenyon, Flamingo Road, The Damned Don’t Cry, Harriet Craig, Goodbye, My Fancy, This Woman is Dangerous, Sudden Fear, Torch Song, Johnny Guitar, Female on the Beach, Queen Bee, Autumn Leaves, The Story of Esther, The Best of Everything, What Ever Happened to Baby Jane?, The Caretakers, Straight Jacket, I Saw What You Did, Berserk!, and Trog. She was married to actors, Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. and Franchot Tone. Her adopted daughter is actress, Christina Crawford, who wrote the tell-all book Mommie Dearest.

1905–Eleftherios Venizelos calls for Crete's union with Greece, beginning what is to be known as the Theriso revolt.

1909–Theodore Roosevelt leaves New York for a post-presidency safari in Africa. The trip is sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution and National Geographic Society.

1910–Film director, Akira Kurosawa, is born in Shinagawa, Tokyo, Japan. Regarded as one of the most important and influential filmmakers in the history of cinema, Kurosawa directed 30 films in a career spanning 57 years. His films include Rashomon, The Seven Samurai, Ran, Rhapsody in August, and The Idiot.

1912–The Dixie Cup is invented by Lawrence Luellen and Hugh Moore.

1913–Writer, Jack London, writes to Winston Churchill, George Bernard Shaw, and H.G. Wells, to ask what they are paid for their "stuff."

1913–A tornado hits the city of Omaha, Nebraska, during the late afternoon on Easter Sunday. In just 12 minutes it cut a path of total destruction five miles long and two blocks wide across the city, killing 94 people and causing $3.5 million in property damage.

1917–Actor, Hans Conried, is born Hans Georg Conried, Jr., in Baltimore, Maryland. He was a character and voice actor, as well as appearing in television and film. His TV appearances include I Love Lucy, Make Room for Daddy, and The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis. He appeared in The Big Street, My Friend Irma, Summer Stock, The 5,000 Fingers of Dr. T, Rock-a-Bye Baby, and The Cat from Outer Space.

1918–In World War I, on the third day of the German Spring Offensive, the 10th Battalion of the Royal West Kent Regiment is annihilated and many of the men become prisoners of war.

1918–Ernest Hemingway sails for Europe to participate in World War I as a medical assistant to the Italian army.

1919–Benito Mussolini founds his Fascist political movement in Milan, Italy.

1922–The first airplane lands at the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C.

1922–Comedian, Marty Allen, of Allen & Rossi, is born Morton David Alpern in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In the 1950s, he became part of the comedy team of Allen & Rossi, with Steve Rossi. That association produced a string of hit comedy albums and 40 appearances on The Ed Sullivan Show. He appeared in the films The Last of the Secret Agents?, The Ballad of Billie Blue, The Great Waltz, Harrad Summer, Allen and Rossi Meet Dracula and Frankenstein, and A Whale of a Tale.

1924–Inventor, Bette Nesmith Graham, is born Bette Clair Mcmurray in Dallas, Texas. She was a secretarial typist, commercial artist, and the inventor of Liquid Paper. She began marketing her typewriter correction fluid as "Mistake Out" in 1956. Mistake Out started out operating at a small loss, with Nesmith's home doubling as company headquarters. As the product became an indispensable tool of the secretarial trade, Nesmith relocated production and shipping from her kitchen to a 10 x 26-foot portable metal structure in her backyard, where packaging, shipping, and production were centered. The name was later changed to Liquid Paper when she began her own company. In 1979, she sold Liquid Paper to the Gillette Corporation for $47.5 million. At the time, her company employed 200 people and made 25 million bottles of Liquid Paper per year. She is the mother of Michael Nesmith, country-rock singer and member of The Monkees. He inherited half of his mother's $50+ million estate.

1925–Tennessee becomes the first state to outlaw teaching the Theory of Evolution.

1926–Film critic and writer, Charles (Davenport) Champlin, is born in Hammondsport, New York. He joined The Los Angeles Times as entertainment editor and columnist in 1965, was its principal film critic from 1967 to 1980, and wrote book reviews and a regular column titled "Critic at Large." He co-founded The Los Angeles Film Critics Association, and has been a board member of the American Cinematheque.

1929–The first telephone is installed in the White House.

1931–Bhagat Singh, Shivaram Rajguru, and Sukhdev Thapar are hung for the killing of a deputy superintendent of police during the Indian struggle for independence.

1932–Bluesman, Louisiana Red, is born Iverson Minter in Bessemer, Alabama. His first album, Lowdown Back Porch Blues, was recorded in New York with Tommy Tucker and released in 1963. A second album, Seventh Son, was released later that year. He had a hit single with I'm Too Poor To Die on the Glover label in 1964. It peaked at #117 on the Billboard “Hot 100” and went to #30 on the Cashbox chart.

1933–The German Reichstag grants Adolf Hitler dictatorial powers.

1933–Actress, Monique van Vooren, is born in Brussels, Belgium. Her films include Andy Warhol’s Frankenstein, Ash Wednesday, Sugar Cookies, and Wall Street.

1934–Actor-director, Mark Rydell, is born Mortimer H. Rydell in New York, New York. His films include The Fox, The Reivers, The Cowboys, The Long Goodbye, Cinderella Liberty, The Rose, On Golden Pond, The River, For the Boys, and Intersection.

1935–The Constitution of the Commonwealth of the Philippines is signed.

1939–The Hungarian air force attacks the headquarters of the Slovak air force in Spisska Nova Ves, killing 13 people and beginning the Slovak-Hungarian War.

1940–The Lahore Resolution (Qarardad-e-Pakistan or Qarardad-e-Lahore) is put forward at the Annual General Convention of the All-India Muslim League.

1942–The U.S. government moves all those native-born of Japanese ancestry into detention centers.

1945–Aircraft carriers begin pre-assault strikes on Okinawa, Japan. Kamikaze attacks will follow.

1946–Actress, Barbara Rhoades, is born in Poughkeepsie, New York. She appeared in the films The Shakiest Gun in the West, There Was a Crooked Man, Up the Sandbox, Scream Blacula Scream, Harry and Tonto, The Goodbye Girl, The Choirboys, Serial, and First Born.

1947–Archduchess Louise of Austria dies in Brussels, Belgium, at age 76.

1949–Ric Ocasek, of The Cars, is born Richard T. Otcasek in Baltimore, Maryland. The new wave rock group had hits with Just What I Needed, Good Times Roll, Let’s Go, You Might Think, and Drive. He was married to model, Paulina Porizkova.

1950–The 22nd Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: All the King's Men; Best Actor: Broderick Crawford for All the King's Men; Best Actress: Olivia de Havilland for The Heiress; Best Director: Joseph L. Mankiewicz for A Letter to Three Wives; Best Foreign Film: The Bicycle Thief (Italy). The ceremonies are held at the RKO Pantages Theatre, Hollywood, California. The host is Paul Douglas.

1952–Businessman, engineer, and diplomat, Rex (Wayne) Tillerson, is born in Wichita Falls, Texas. He was the 69th U.S. Secretary of State, serving under President Donald Trump.

1953–Singer, Chaka Khan, is born Yvette Marie Stevens in Chicago, Illinois. Her biggest hit was Tell Me Something Good in 1975.

1954–Fashion designer, Kenneth Cole, is born in Brooklyn, New York. Kenneth Cole designs men's and women's footwear, men's and women's clothing, and also accessories under the Kenneth Cole Reaction Line. Overall, Kenneth Cole Productions sells clothing and accessories under the following lines: Kenneth Cole New York, Kenneth Cole Reaction, and Unlisted.

1956–Pakistan becomes the first Islamic Republic in the world.

1957–Actress, Amanda (Michael) Plummer, is born in New York, New York. She has appeared in the films The World According to Garp, Daniel, The Hotel New Hampshire, Made in Heaven, Joe Versus the Volcano, The Fisher King, Freejack, Needful Things, Pulp Fiction, The Prophecy, and The Hunger Games: Catching Fire. She is the daughter of actor, Christopher Plummer, and actress, Tammy Grimes.

1959–Actress, Catherine (Ann) Keener, is born in Miami, Florida. She has appeared in the films About Last Night..., Switch, Johnny Suede, Walking and Talking, 8mm, Simpatico, Being John Malhovich, The Ballad of Jack and Rose, The 40-Year-Old Virgin, Capote, Friends with Money, Into the Wild, and Peace, Love & Understanding. She was married to actor, Dermot Mulroney.

1962–The NS Savannah, the first nuclear-powered cargo-passenger ship, is launched as a showcase for Dwight D. Eisenhower's “Atoms for Peace” initiative.

1964–John Lennon's first book, In His Own Write, is published in London, England, by Johnathan Cape. It is a collection of John’s stories, poems, and drawings, some of which go back to his teenage years. Lennon asked old friend and Mersey Beat editor, Bill Harry, to supply copies of the poems and stories he’d sent him since 1961, and filled the rest of the book with more recent scribblings, dashed off on the bus from one gig to the next. The “Lennon style” is one of spontaneous verbal imagery presented in a truly chaotic form. Some of the pieces reveal his obsession with subjects such as violent death, family breakdown, and the crippled, while many of the images in the book have their roots in Lennon’s personal dreams and nightmares.

1964–Actress, Hope Davis, is born in Englewood, New Jersey. She has appeared in the films Flatliners, Home Alone, Kiss of Death, Mr. Wrong, Next Stop Wonderland, Arlington Road, About Schmidt, Splendor, Proof, and The Weather Man.

1964–Actor, Peter Lorre, dies from a stroke in Los Angeles, California, at age 59. He appeared in the films The Maltese Falcon, Casablanca, Arsenic and Old Lace, Hollywood Canteen, The Beast with Five Fingers, My Favorite Brunette, Beat the Devil, 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, Around the World in Eighty Days, The Story of Mankind, The Sad Sack, The Big Circus, Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea, Five Weeks in a Balloon, and Muscle Beach Party.

1965–NASA launches Gemini 3, the first two-man U.S. space flight, with astronauts Gus Grissom and John Young.

1965–The first issue of The Vigilant is published in Khartoum, the Republic of Sudan.

1967–Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. calls the Vietnam War the biggest obstacle to the civil rights movement.

1969–The Rally for Decency in Miami, Florida, attracts 30,000 people, including Jackie Gleason, Kate Smith, The Lettermen, and Anita Bryant. Announcements publicizing the rally warn that “longhairs and weird dressers” won't be let inside. Four days later, President Richard Nixon sends a letter of congratulations and appreciation to the organizers of the rally.

1971–The USSR conducts an underground nuclear test.

1972–Daredevil, Evel Knievel, breaks 93 bones after successfully clearing 35 cars in a motorcycle stunt.

1972–The film The Concert for Bangladesh officially opens in New York. It is presented in 70mm with six-track sound.

1972–Fashion designer, Cristóbal Balenciaga, dies in Xàbia, Alicante, Spain, at age 77. His often spare, sculptural creations were considered masterworks of haute couture in the 1950s and 1960s. The Balenciaga fashion house continues under the direction of Alexander Wang, and it is owned by the Gucci Group.

1973–The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1973–New York judge, Ira Fieldsteel, rules that John Lennon must leave the United States within 60 days, but Yoko Ono is granted permanent residency.

1976–The International Bill of Rights goes into effect with 35 member nations.

1976–Actress, Keri (Lynn) Russell, is born in Fountain Valley, California. She starred in 84 episodes of the TV series Felicity. She has appeared in the films Honey I Blew Up the Kid, The Lottery, We Were Soldiers, the Upside of Anger, Waitress, and Extraordinary Measures.

1977–All 12 of the Nixon Interviews are recorded with British journalist, David Frost, interviewing former President Richard Nixon about the Watergate scandal and the Nixon tapes.

1978–The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1978–The first UNIFIL troops arrive in Lebanon for a peacekeeping mission along the Blue Line.

1978–TV personality and blogger, Perez Hilton, is born Mario Armando Lavandeira, Jr. in Miami, Florida. His blog, Perezhilton.com (formerly PageSixSixSix.com), is known for posts covering gossip items about celebrities.

1979–Larry Holmes knocks out Osvaldo Ocasio in Round 7 for the Heavyweight Boxing Championship.

1980–France conducts a nuclear test.

1980–Archbishop Oscar Romero of El Salvador gives his famous speech appealing to men of the El Salvadoran armed forces to stop killing the Salvadorans.

1982–Guatemala's government, headed by Fernando Romeo Lucas Garca, is overthrown in a military coup by right-wing General Efran Ros Montt.

1983–President Ronald Reagan makes his initial proposal to develop technology to intercept enemy missiles.

1983–Barney Clark, first artificial heart recipient, dies after 112 days at age 62.

1985–The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1985–Singer, Billy Joel, marries supermodel, Christie Brinkley, on a boat in New York Harbor, near the Statue of Liberty.

1989–Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann announce their success with “cold fusion” at the University of Utah.

1990–Princess Eugenie of York is born in London, England. She is the younger daughter of Prince Andrew, Duke of York, and Sarah, Duchess of York. She is also the sixth grandchild of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.

1991–The Revolutionary United Front, with support from the special forces of Charles Taylor's National Patriotic Front of Liberia, invades Sierra Leone in an attempt to overthrow Joseph Saidu Momoh, sparking a gruesome 11-year Sierra Leone Civil War.

1992–After four years, the U.S. radio series, “The Lost Lennon Tapes,” finally comes to a close. A total of 218 episodes had been aired.

1992–Friedrich Hayek, dies in Freiburg im Breisgau, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, at age 92. He wrote the book, The Road to Serfdom, and was the co-recipient of the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences in 1974. Reader's Digest also published an abridged version of his book in April 1945, enabling The Road to Serfdom to reach a far wider audience than academics. The book is widely popular among those advocating individualism and classical liberalism.

1994–Mexican Presidential candidate, Luis Donaldo Colosio, is assassinated by Mario Aburto Martnez at an election rally in Tijuana, Mexico.

1994–A U.S. Air Force (USAF) F-16 aircraft collides with a USAF C-130 at Pope Air Force Base and crashes, killing 24 U.S. Army soldiers on the ground.

1994–Aeroflot Flight 593 crashes in Siberia, when the pilot's 15-year-old son accidentally disengages the autopilot, killing all 75 people on board.

1994–Shock jock, Howard Stern, formally announces his Libertarian run for Governor of New York.

1996–Taiwan holds its first direct elections, choosing Lee Teng-hui as President.

1998–The 70th Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: Titanic; Best Actor: Jack Nicholson for As Good As It Gets; Best Actress: Helen Hunt for As Good As It Gets; Best Director: James Cameron for Titanic; Best Foreign Film: Karakter (Netherlands). The ceremonies are held at the Shrine Auditorium, Los Angeles, California. The host is Billy Crystal.

1999–Gunmen assassinate Paraguay's Vice President Luis María Argaña.

1999–The 71st Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: Shakespeare in Love; Best Actor: Roberto Benigni for Life Is Beautiful; Best Actress: Gwyneth Paltrow for Shakespeare in Love; Best Director: Steven Spielberg for Saving Private Ryan; Best Foreign Film: Life Is Beautiful (Italy). The ceremonies are held at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion, Los Angeles, California. The host is Whoopi Goldberg.

2001–The Russian space station Mir breaks up in the Earth’s atmosphere before falling into the southern Pacific Ocean near Fiji.

2003–The Battle of Nasiriyah, the first major conflict during the invasion of Iraq, takes place.

2003–The 75th Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: Chicago; Best Actor: Adrien Brody for The Pianist; Best Actress: Nicole Kidman for The Hours; Best Director: Roman Polanski for The Pianist; Best Foreign Film: Nowhere in Africa (Germany). The ceremonies are held at the Kodak Theatre, Hollywood, California. The host is Steve Martin.

2005–During a test on a distillation tower, liquid waste builds up and flows out of a blowout tower. Waste fumes then ignite and explode, killing 15 workers and injuring more than 170 others at the Texas City Refinery in Texas City, Texas.

2007–A trailer is thrown through a bowling alley, as a tornado moves through Clovis, New Mexico. Around 100 homes and businesses are destroyed and telephone poles are snapped.

2008–The Rajiv Gandhi International Airport opens in Hyderabad, India.

2008–Entrepreneur, Al Copeland, dies of Merkel cell carcinoma in Munich, Germany, at age 64. In 1972, he founded the Popeyes Chicken & Biscuits fast food chain in the New Orleans suburb of Arabi in St. Bernard Parish. Copeland began franchising his restaurant in 1976, and approximately 500 outlets were added over the next 10 years.

2009–A McDonnell Douglas MD-11 flying from Guangzhou, China, crashes at Narita International Airport in Tokya, Japan, killing both the captain and the co-pilot.

2011–Actress, Elizabeth Taylor, dies of congestive heart failure in Los Angeles, California, at age 79. Taylor struggled with health problems much of her life, starting with her divorce from Conrad Hilton. Taylor experienced serious medical issues whenever she faced problems in her personal life. She was hospitalized more than 70 times and had at least 20 major operations. Taylor broke her back five times, had both her hips replaced, had a hysterectomy, suffered from dysentery and phlebitis, punctured her esophagus, and survived a benign brain tumor operation in 1997. She had skin cancer, and faced life-threatening bouts with pneumonia twice, one in 1961, requiring an emergency tracheotomy. In 1983, she admitted to having been addicted to sleeping pills and painkillers for 35 years. She was treated twice for alcoholism and prescription drug addiction at the Betty Ford Center. She appeared in the films Lassie Come Home, National Velvet, Life with Father, Little Women, Father of the Bride, A Place in the Sun, The Last Time I Saw Paris, Giant, Raintree County, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, BUtterfield 8, Cleopatra, The Sandpiper, Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, The Taming of the Shrew, The Only Game in Town, and Ash Wednesday.

2012–Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, President of Somalia, dies in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, at age 77.

2013–Bodybuilder and publisher, Joe Weider, dies of heart failure in Los Angeles, California, at age 92. He co-founded the International Federation of BodyBuilding and Fitness and Muscle & Fitness magazine. He was also the creator of the Mr. Olympia, the Ms. Olympia, and the Masters Olympia bodybuilding contests.

2014–Internet blogger, Peter Oakley, dies of cancer in Bakewell, Derbyshire, England, at age 86. He was a pensioner better known by his pseudonym “geriatric1927” on the video sharing website, YouTube. In mid-2006, Oakley was the most subscribed-to user on YouTube. His rise to the #1 position took place in just over a week, and he displaced users who had been around since the site's launch over a year before. In November, he had 30,000 subscribers, and by June 2012, Oakley had recorded over 350 videos.

2015–Senator Ted Cruz announces his candidacy for the 2016 U.S. Presidental race. He is the first to come forward for the upcoming election.

2015–Gary Dahl, inventor of the Pet Rock, dies of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Jacksonville, Oregon, at age 78.

2015–Lee Kuan Yew, first Prime Minister of Singapore, dies in Singapore at age 91. He is recognised as the founding father of modern Singapore, and the only leader known to bring an entire country from third-world to first-world status in a single generation.

2016–A powerful blizzard sweeping through Denver, Colorado, forces authorities to close Denver International Airport, Interstate 70, and Interstate 25. More than 100,000 people are left without power. The Colorado Army National Guard is deployed to help rescue those stranded by the storm.

2016–Baseball player and sports announcer, Joe Garagiola, dies in Phoenix, Arizona, at age 90. He played nine seasons in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the St. Louis Cardinals, Pittsburgh Pirates, Chicago Cubs, and New York Giants. He was also well known outside of baseball for having been one of the regular panelists on The Today Show on NBC-TV.

2016–Actor, Ken Howard, dies in Los Angeles, California, at age 71. He appeared in the films Tell Me That You Love Me, Junie Moon, Such Good Friends, 1776, Superdome, Victims, Oscar, Clear and Present Danger, and The Net.

2017–Actress, Lola Albright, dies in Toluca Lake, California, at age 92. She appeared in the films The Pirate, Easter Parade, Julia Misbehaves, Champion, Tulsa, The Good Humor Man, When You’re Smiling, The Tender Trap, The Monolith Monsters, Kid Galahad, Joy House, Lord Love a Duck, The Way West, The Money Jungle, Where Were You When the Lights Went Out?, and The Impossible Years.

2018–The House of Commons of the U.K. Parliament discusses implications for freedom of speech arising from a case where a man was convicted of hate crimes for posting a video of a pug responding to Nazi slogans. The case has drawn criticism from campaigners and prominent comedians.

2018–A fire at a condominium complex in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, kills at least 13 people and injures 27 others, with most people dying of suffocation or jumping from high floors.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Ponce de Leon; Tsar Paul I of Russia; Fannie Farmer; The University of California, Oakland; Dane Rudhyar; Joan Crawford; Dixie Cups; Benito Mussolini; Bette Nesmith Graham; Monique van Vooren; Ric Ocasek; Amanda Plummer; In His Own Write by John Lennon; Peter Lorre; Evel Knievel's accident; Keri Russell; Larry Holmes; Billy Joel and Christie Brinkley; a poster for As Good As It Gets; Adrien Brody in The Pianist; Elizabeth Taylor; and Peter Oakley.

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