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1938–John Galardi, founder of the Der Wienerschnitzel hot dog fast food chain, is born. Known as the World's Largest Hot Dog Chain, Der Wienerschnitzel locations are found predominantly in California and Texas, though others are located in Arizona, Colorado, Illinois, Louisiana, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and Washington state.



51–Nero, later to become Roman Emperor, is given the title Princeps Iuventutis (Head of the Youth).

306–Adrian and Natalia of Nicomedia are martyred at Nicomedia. The executioners wanted to burn the bodies, but a storm arose and quenched the fire.

561–Pope Pelagius I dies at Rome, Eastern Roman Empire. He was the second pope of the Byzantine Papacy.

624–Hasan ibn Ali, Caliph of Rashidun Caliphate, is born in Medina, Al Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.

852–Knez Trpimir I issues a statute, a document with the first known written mention of the Croats name in Croatian sources.

895–Chinese Emperor, Liu Zhiyuan, is born. He was the ethnically-Shatuo founder of the Later Han, the fourth of the Five Dynasties in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period of Chinese history.

932–Translation of the relics of martyr Wenceslaus I, Duke of Bohemia, Prince of the Czechs, is done.

1152–Frederick I. Barbarossa is elected King of the Germans.

1172–Stephen III of Hungary dies of poisoning in Hungary, at age 25.

1188–Blanche of Castile is born in Palencia, Castile. She was Queen of France, as the wife of Louis VIII.

1193–Saladin, Iraqi-Egyptian sultan, dies of a fever in Damascus, Syria, at age 55. At the time of his death, he was in possession of one piece of gold and 40 pieces of silver: he had given away his great wealth to his poor subjects, leaving nothing to pay for his funeral.

1238–The Battle of the Sit River is fought in the northern part of the present-day Yaroslavl Oblast of Russia, between the Mongol hordes of Batu Khan and the Russians under Yuri II of Vladimir-Suzdal, during the Mongol invasion of Rus'.

1238–Joan of England, Queen of Scotland, dies in Havering-atte-Bower, London, England, at age 27.

1351–Ramathibodi becomes King of Siam.

1386–Wladyslaw II Jogaila is crowned King of Poland.

1461–Lancastrian King Henry VI is deposed by his House of York cousin, who then becomes King Edward IV.

1493–Explorer, Christopher Columbus, arrives back in Lisbon, Portugal, from his voyage to America, aboard his ship the Nina.

1519–Hernan Cortes arrives in Mexico in search of the Aztec civilization.

1628–The Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal charter.

1665–King Charles II declares war on the Netherlands, starting the Second Anglo-Dutch War.

1675–John Flamsteed is appointed the first Astronomer Royal of England.

1678–Antonio (Lucio) Vivaldi, one of the most prolific of Italian Baroque composers, is born in Venice, Italy. His best-known work is a series of violin concertos known as The Four Seasons.

1681–Charles II grants a land charter to William Penn for the area that will later become Pennsylvania.

1728–Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna of Russia dies of puerperal fever in Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, at age 20.

1769–Muhammad Ali of Egypt is born Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha in Kavala, Macedonia, Rumeli eyalet, Ottoman Empire (present-day Greece). Although he was not a modern nationalist, he is regarded as the founder of modern Egypt, due to his dramatic reforms in the military, economic, and cultural spheres that he instituted.

1774–Astronomer, William Herschel, makes the first sighting of the Orion Nebula.

1789–The first Congress of the United States meets in New York City, putting the U.S. Constitution into effect. The U.S. Bill of Rights is written and proposed to Congress.

1790–France is divided into 83 départements, cutting across the former provinces in an attempt to dislodge regional loyalties based on ownership of land by the nobility.

1791–A Constitutional Act is introduced by the British House of Commons in London, England, which envisages the separation of Canada into Lower Canada (Quebec) and Upper Canada (Ontario).

1791–Vermont becomes the 14th state of the United States of America.

1792–Oranges are introduced to Hawaii.

1794–The 11th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, granting each state sovereign immunity, is passed by the U.S. Congress.

1797–The first peaceful transfer of power between elected leaders in modern times, takes place when John Adams is sworn in as President of the United States, succeeding George Washington.

1801–Thomas Jefferson is the first U.S. President to be inaugurated in Washington, D.C.

1804–Irish convicts rebel against British colonial authority in the Colony of New South Wales.

1809–James Madison is the first U.S. President inaugurated in American-made clothing.

1813–Cyril VI of Constantinople is elected Ecumenical Patriarch.

1825–John Quincy Adams is inaugurated as the sixth President of the United States of America. He is the son of President, John Adams.

1829–Andrew Jackson is inaugurated as the seventh President of the United States of America. Later, an unruly crowd mobs the White House during the Inaugural Ball.

1837–Martin Van Buren is inaugurated as the eighth President of the United States of America.

1837–The city of Chicago, Illinois, is incorporated.

1845–James K. Polk is inaugurated as the 11th President of the United States of America.

1848–Carlo Alberto di Savoia signs the Statuto Albertino that will later represent the first constitution of the Regno d'Italia.

1848–George Sand and her lover, composer, Frederic Chopin, meet for the last time. They had been estranged for some tine, after living together for nine years. Sand's daughter, Solange, had driven them apart with malicious gossip.

1861–Abraham Lincoln is inaugurated as the 16th President of the United States of America.

1861–The first national flag of the Confederate States of America (the "Stars and Bars") is adopted.

1863-The Territory of Idaho is established.

1865–President Abraham Lincoln is inaugurated for his second term.

1865–The third (and final) national flag of the Confederate States of America is adopted by the Confederate Congress.

1868–The Royal Canadian Yacht Club is chartered in Toronto, Canada.

1868–Jesse Chisholm, pioneer of the Chisholm Trail, dies near Left Hand Spring (present-day Blaine County, Oklahoma), at age 63.

1869–Ulysses Grant is inaugurated as the 18th President of the United States of America.

1873–The New York Daily Graphic, the first illustrated daily newspaper in the U.S., begins publication.

1877–Emile Berliner, the man behind many inventions, comes up with a thing he calls the microphone.

1878–Philosopher, Peter D. Ouspensky, is born Pyotr Demianovich Ouspenskii in Moscow, Russian Empire. He was a mathematician and esotericist known for his expositions of the early work of the Greek-Armenian teacher of esoteric doctrine, George Gurdjieff. Ouspensky's lectures in London, England, were attended by such literary figures as Aldous Huxley, T. S. Eliot, Gerald Heard, and other writers, journalists, and doctors.

1881–James A. Garfield is inaugurated as the 20th President of the United States of America.

1882–Britain's first electric trams run in East London.

1885–Grover Cleveland is inaugurated as the 22nd President of the United States of America.

1887–Gottlieb Daimler unveils his first automobile, which he test runs in Esslingen and Cannstatt, Germany.

1887–At age 23, William Randolph Hearst buys The San Francisco Examiner and starts to build the Hearst newspaper empire. He accomplished this with a rare combination of pretty good reporting and lurid sensationalism. The film, Citizen Kane, was based on Hearst's ruthless career. By 1937, 50 years after he purchased his first newspaper, Hearst owned 28 major newspapers and 18 magazines, along with several radio stations, movie companies, and news services.

1888–Football player, Knute Rockne, is born in Voss, Norway. He is regarded as one of the greatest coaches in college football history.

1889–Benjamin Harrison is inaugurated as the 23rd President of the United States of America.

1890–The longest bridge in Great Britain, the Forth Bridge in Scotland, measuring 1,710 feet long, is opened by the Prince of Wales, later King Edward VII.

1891–Lois Wilson (Lois W.), co-founder of Al-Anon, is born in Brooklyn Heights, New York. She was the wife of Bill Wilson (Bill W.), the founder of Alcoholics Anonymous. Al-Anon, is the support group for the friends and family of alcoholics.

1894–A fire in Shanghai destroys over 1,000 buildings.

1897–William McKinley is inaugurated as the 25th President of the United States of America.

1899–Cyclone Mahina sweeps in north of Cooktown, Queensland, with a 39-foot wave that reaches up to 3.1 miles inland, killing over 300 people.

1901–President William McKinley is inaugurated for his second term.

1902–The American Automobile Association (AAA) is founded in Chicago, Illinois.

1906–Avery (Robert) Fisher, audio manufacturer, is born in Brooklyn, New York. With the invention of FM by Edwin Armstrong, Fisher's desire to have a radio and amplifying device that could meet the goal of high fidelity (HiFi) became a reality. In 1957, the Fisher Radio Company produced their first FM/AM receiver that would be considered high fidelity, the Fisher 500 (TA500). Fisher put out their first true stereo receiver, the Fisher 600 (TA600), in 1959. In 1969, Fisher sold the company to the Emerson Electric Company for $31 million, who in turn, sold the company to Sanyo of Japan.

1906–Businessman, Charles Rudolph Walgreen, Jr., is born in Chicago, Illinois. The son of Charles Rudolph Walgreen, the founder of the Walgreens drug store, he took over the company after the death of his father in 1939. He was the president of Walgreens from 1939 until 1963.

1908–The Collinwood School fire, in Collinwood near Cleveland, Ohio, kills 174 people.

1909–William Taft is inaugurated as the 27th President of the United States of America.

1909–Billionaire real estate developer, Harry B. Helmsley, is born in Manhattan, New York. He became one of the America’s biggest property holders. His second marriage to Leona Roberts (“Queen of Mean”) led to charges of false accounting and tax evasion, and a celebrated trial, where Harry was judged too frail to plead, but Leona was fined and jailed.

1912–Actor, John Garfield, is born Jacob Julius Garfinkle in New York, New York. He grew up in poverty in Depression-era New York City and in the early 1930s became an important member of the Group Theater. In 1937, he moved to Hollywood, eventually becoming one of major stars of Warner Bros. When called to testify before the House Committee on Un-American Activities, Garfield refused to name communist party members or followers. He was blacklisted and his film career ended. He appeared in the films They Made Me a Criminal, Tortilla Flat, Thank Your Lucky Stars, Hollywood Canteen, The Postman Always Rings Twice, Humoresque, Body and Soul, Daisy Kenyon, and We Were Strangers.

1913–Woodrow Wilson is inaugurated as the 28th President of the United States of America.

1913–The United States Department of Labor is formed.

1917–Jeannette Rankin, of Montana, becomes the first female member of the U.S. House of Representatives.

1918–The USS Cyclops departs from Barbados and is never seen again, presumably lost with all hands in the Bermuda Triangle.

1921–Warren G. Harding is inaugurated as the 29th President of the United States of America.

1925–Musician, Paul Mauriat, is born in Marseille, France. He is best known for his million-selling remake of André Popp's Love is Blue, which was #1 for five weeks in 1968.

1929–Herbert Hoover is inaugurated as the 31st President of the United States of America. Charles Curtis becomes the first Native American Vice President.

1930–Coolidge Dam is dedicated in Arizona.

1932–Singer, (Zenzile) Miriam Makeba, is born in Prospect Township, Johannesburg, Union of South Africa. In the 1960s, she was the first artist from Africa to popularize African music around the world. She was married to musician, Hugh Masekela, and activist, Stokely Carmichael.

1933–Franklin Delano Roosevelt is inaugurated as the 32nd President of the United States of America. He pledges to pull the U.S. out of the great Depression and says, "We have nothing to fear but fear itself."

1933–Frances Perkins becomes U.S. Secretary of Labor, the first female member of the United States Cabinet.

1933–The Parliament of Austria is suspended due to a quibble over procedure: Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss initiates an authoritarian rule by decree.

1934–Singer-actress, Barbara (Jean) McNair, is born in Chicago, Illinois. Her big break came with a win on the TV show Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts, which led to bookings at popular nightspots like The Purple Onion and the Cocoanut Grove. She was see on many TV shows in the 1950s and 1960s, had hit records, and appeared in movies. Her films include Spencer’s Mountain, Change of Habit, They Call Me MISTER Tibbs!, and The Organization. McNair posed nude for the October 1968 issue of Playboy magazine.

1937–The 9th Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: The Great Ziegfeld; Best Actor: Paul Muni for The Story of Louis Pasteur; Best Actress: Luise Rainer for The Great Ziegfeld; Best Director: Frank Capra for Mr. Deeds Goes to Town. The ceremonies are held at the Biltmore Hotel, Los Angeles, California. The host is George Jessel.

1938–John Galardi, founder of the Der Wienerschnitzel hot dog fast food chain, is born. Known as the World's Largest Hot Dog Chain, Der Wienerschnitzel locations are found predominantly in California and Texas, though others are located in Arizona, Colorado, Illinois, Louisiana, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and Washington state.

1939–Actress, Paula Prentiss, is born Paula Ragusa in San Antonio, Texas. She appeared in the films Where the Boys Are, The Honeymoon Machine, Bachelor in Paradise, The Horizontal Lieutenant, Follow the Boys, Man’s Favorite Sport?, The World of Henry Orient, Looking for Love, In Harm’s Way, What’s New Pussycat?, Catch-22, The Parallax View, and The Stepford Wives. She is married to actor, Richard Benjamin.

1941–During World War II, the United Kingdom launches Operation Claymore on the Lofoten Islands as the first large scale British Commando raid.

1941–Film director, Adrian Lyne, is born in Peterborough, Northamptonshire, England. His films include Foxes, Flashdance, Fatal Attraction, Jacob’s Ladder, Indecent Proposal, and Unfaithful.

1943–The Battle of the Bismarck Sea in the southwest Pacific comes to an end.

1943–The 15th Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: Mrs. Miniver; Best Actor: James Cagney for Yankee Doodle Dandy; Best Actress: Greer Garson for Mrs. Miniver; Best Director: William Wyler for Mrs. Miniver. The ceremonies are held at The Cocoanut Grove, Ambassador Hotel, Los Angeles, California. The host is Bob Hope. Composer, Irving Berlin, wins an Oscar for Best Original Song for White Christmas, written for the film Holiday Inn.

1944–U.S. military daylight bombing of Berlin and anti-Germany strikes begin in northern Italy.

1944–Singer, Bobby Womack, is born Robert Dwayne Womack in Cleveland, Ohio. As a singer, he is best remembered for the hits Lookin' For a Love, That's The Way I Feel About Cha, and Woman's Gotta Have It.

1945–Finland declares war on Nazi Germany.

1945–In the Great Britain, Princess Elizabeth, later Queen Elizabeth II, joins the British Auxiliary Transport Service as a driver.

1945–British socialite, Tara Browne, is born in London, England. He was heir to the Guinness fortune and the inspiration for John Lennon’s lyrics for the song A Day in the Life. He was a member of Swinging London's counterculture of the 1960s.

1946–Journalist and writer, Patricia Kennealy, is born in Brooklyn, New York. As the editor-in-chief of Jazz and Pop magazine in the late 1960s, she was one of the first women rock critics. In 1992, Kennealy published a memoir about her months with Jim Morrison, Strange Days: My Life With and Without Jim Morrison. Her book places great emphasis on their hand-fasting ceremony (a form of marriage) that took place in June 1970. However, Jim Morrison's will stated: "I declare that I am a resident of Los Angeles County, California; that I am unmarried and have no children."

1947–Musician, Bob Lewis, of Devo, is born Robert Curtis Lewis in Akron, Ohio. The band’s biggest hit was Whip It.

1948–Chris Squire, bass player for Yes, is born Christopher Russell Edward Squire in London, England. Yes released their first record in 1969, and though the band have had many personnel changes over the decades, they have continued to record and tour for over 40 years. Squire is the only original member who has remained in the line-up throughout the band's recording career.

1948–Writer, Antonin Artaud, dies of intestinal cancer in Paris, France, at age 51. His best-known work, The Theatre and Its Double, was published in 1938. This book contained the two manifestos of the Theatre of Cruelty. There, he proposed a theatre that was in effect a return to magic and ritual and he sought to create a new theatrical language of totem and gesture: a language of space devoid of dialogue that would appeal to all the senses.

1949–The Security Council of United Nations recommends membership for Israel.

1950–Rick Perry, Governor of Texas (2000-2015), is born James Richard Perry in Paint Creek, Texas. He assumed the governorship in December 2000, when then-governor George W. Bush resigned to become President of the United States. Perry is the longest serving governor in Texas state history.

1951–Singer-songwriter, Chris Rea, is born Christopher Anton Rea in Middlesbrough, England. He is known for his 1978 hit song, Fool (If You Think It's Over), that charted #12 on the Billboard Hot 100 and spent three weeks at #1 on the U.S. Billboard Adult Contemporary chart.

1952–Actor, Ronald Reagan, marries actress, Nancy Davis.

1953–Snow is reported on the island of Oahu in Hawaii.

1953–Musician-producer, Emilio Estefan, is born in Santiago de Cuba, Cuba. He had success with the Miami Sound Machine, with is wife, Gloria Estefan.

1953–Actress, Kay (Ann) Lenz, is born in Los Angeles, California. She appeared in the films American Graffiti, Breezy, White Line Fever, Rich Man, Poor Man, Mean Dog Blues, The Initiation of Sarah, and Falling From Grace. She was married to pop singer, David Cassidy.

1954–Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, announces the first successful kidney transplant.

1954–Politician and lawyer, François Fillon, is born François Charles Armand Fillon in Le Mans, France. He was Prime Minister of France (2007-2012).

1954–Actress, Catherine (Anne) O'Hara, is born in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. She is known for her comedy work on the TV series SCTV. She has appeared in the films After Hours, Heartburn, Beetlejuice, Dick Tracy, Betsy’s Wedding, The Paper, Wyatt Earp, Waiting for Guffman, Home Fries, Best in Show, A Mighty Wind, and For Your Consideration.

1955–French chef and restaurateur, Fernand Point, dies in Vienne, France, at age 58. His restaurant, La Pyramide, was considered by many to be the greatest in the world. Paul Bocuse, Louis Outhier, Alain Chapel, and Jean and Pierre Troisgros, all trained under Point, and he is considered to be the father of modern French Cuisine.

1957–The S&P 500 stock market index is introduced, replacing the S&P 90.

1960–The French freighter, La Coubre, explodes in Havana, Cuba, killing 100 people.

1960–Lucille Ball files for divorce from Desi Arnaz.

1961–Boxer, Ray "Boom Boom" Mancini, is born Raymond Michael Mancino in Youngstown, Ohio. He held the World Boxing Association lightweight championship from 1982 to 1984. He is the son of boxer, Lenny “Boom Boom” Mancini, a top-ranked contender during the 1940s.

1961–Actor, Steven (Robert) Weber, is born in Queens, New York. He appeared in the films The Flamingo Kid, Hamburger Hill, Single White Female, The Temp, and Leaving Las Vegas.

1962–The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission announces that the first atomic power plant in Antarctica is in operation.

1962–A Caledonian Airways Douglas DC-7 crashes shortly after takeoff from Cameroon, killing 111 people.

1963–Poet, William Carlos Williams, dies of heart trouble in Rutherford, New Jersey, at age 79. In addition to poetry, he occasionally wrote short stories, plays, novels, essays, and translations. As a family doctor, he practiced medicine by day and wrote at night.

1965–David Attenbrough becomes the new controller of BBC2.

1966–A Canadian Pacific Air Lines DC-8-43 explodes on landing at Tokyo International Airport, killing 64 people.

1966–London's Evening Standard publishes Maureen Cleeve's interview with John Lennon that contains his soon-to-be-distorted "Beatles more popular than Jesus" remarks. Lennon said: "Christianity will go. It will vanish and shrink. I needn't argue that. I'm right and will be proved right. We're more popular than Jesus right now. I don’t know which will go first, rock and roll or Christianity. Jesus was all right, but his disciples were thick and ordinary. It’s them twisting it that ruins it for me." Although Lennon was making a comment about the irrelevance of organized religion to many contemporary young people, most conservatives interpret his statement as an arrogant insult. No one in the U.K. is particularly shocked or offended, but when the remarks (quoted out of context) reach America, conservatives (particularly those in southern states) go off the deep end and start bonfires for the burning of Beatles records, magazines, bubblegum cards, books, posters, and other paraphernalia. The hostile atmosphere surrounding The Beatles' final concert tour of the U.S. has much to do with their decision to quit touring altogether.

1967–The Doors headline at The Avalon Ballroom.

1968–Boxer, Joe Frazier, knocks out Buster Mathis in the 11th round for the Heavyweight Boxing Championship.

1968–Actress, Patsy Kensit, is born Patricia Jude Francis Kensit in Hounslow, London, England. She has appeared in the films The Great Gatsby, Alfie Darling, The Blue Bird, Absolute Beginners, Lethal Weapon 2, Twenty-One, and Grace of My Heart. She was married to musician, Liam Gallagher.

1969–The Kray brothers, Ronald and Reginald, London East End gang bosses, are found guilty of murder.

1969–Chastity (Sun) Bono, is born in Los Angeles, California. She was the daughter of pop singing duo, Sonny & Cher. Between 2008 and 2010, Bono became a transgender man and changed his name to Chaz Salvatore Bono. (S)he had earlier come out as a lesbian in 1995. A documentary on Bono's experience, Becoming Chaz, was screened at the 2011 Sundance Film Festival.

1970–French submarine, Eurydice, explodes underwater, killing the entire 57-man crew.

1970–Janis Joplin is fined $200 for using obscene language onstage in Tampa, Florida.

1974–British Conservative Prime Minister, Edward Heath, resigns after an election and Labour leader, Harold Wilson, forms a new government.

1974–People magazine is published for the first time in America as “People Weekly.”

1975–Queen Elizabeth II knights silent film star, Charlie Chaplin, at Buckingham Palace.

1976–The Northern Ireland Constitutional Convention is formally dissolved in Northern Ireland, resulting in direct rule of Northern Ireland from London by the British Parliament.

1977–The first Cray-1 supercomputer is shipped to the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico.

1977–An earthquake in eastern and southern Europe kills more than 1,500 people, mostly in the seriously damaged city of Bucharest, Romania.

1978–The Chicago Daily News publishes its last issue.

1978–The IRS raids Jerry Lee Lewis' home at dawn and repossesses $170,000 worth of automobiles to pay off his tax debt.

1980–Nationalist leader, Robert Mugabe, wins a sweeping election victory to become Zimbabwe's first black prime minister.

1983–Bertha Wilson is appointed the first woman to sit on the Supreme Court of Canada.

1984–Pee Wee Reese and Rick Ferrell are elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame.

1985–The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approves a blood test for AIDS. It will be used for screening all blood donations in America.

1986–The Soviet Vega 1 begins returning images of Halley's Comet, including the first images of its nucleus.

1986–Computer programmer and businessman, Mike Krieger, is born in São Paulo, Brazil. He co-founded Instagram.

1986–Richard Manuel, keyboardist with The Band, commits suicide by hanging in Winter Park, Florida, at age 41.

1989–Time and Warner Communications announce a planned merger to form the world's largest media and entertainment company.

1989–A tornado injures five people near Brownsville, Mississippi, and kills seven cows and two hogs in a pasture.

1989–Actress, Phoebe Cates, marries actor, Kevin Kline.

1991–Sheikh Saad Al-Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah, the Prime Minister of Kuwait, returns to his country for the first time since Iraq's invasion.

1992–Cinematographer, Nestor Almendros, dies of lymphoma in New York, New York, at age 61. His films include The Collector, Days of Heaven, The Blue Lagoon, Still of the Night, Sophie’s Choice, Places in the Heart, Heartburn, and Imagine: John Lennon.

1993–Actress, Katharine Hepburn, enters the hospital, suffering from exhaustion.

1993–Bobbi Kristina Brown is born in Livingston, New Jersey. She was the daughter of singers, Whitney Houston and Bobby Brown. Her parents' fame kept Bobbi Kristina in the public eye, including her appearances on the reality show Being Bobby Brown.

1994–Actor, John Candy, dies of a heart attack in Durango, Mexico, at age 43. He is known as a member of the Toronto branch of The Second City and its related Second City Television. He appeared in the films 1941, The Blues Brothers, Stripes, Going Berserk, Splash, Summer Rental, Volunteers, Little Shop of Horros, Spaceballs, Planes, Trains and Automobiles, The Great Outdoors, Uncle Buck, Only the Lonely, and JFK.

1995–George Foreman loses his WBA boxing title for refusing to fight Tony Tucker.

1996–A derailed train in Weyauwega, Wisconsin, causes the emergency evacuation of 2,300 people for 16 days.

1996–Country entertainer, Minnie Pearl, of the Grand Ole Opry, dies from complications of a stroke in Nashville, Tennessee, at age 83. Pearl's comedy was gentle satire of rural Southern culture, often called "hillbilly" culture. She always wore old-fashioned, cotton dresses and a hat with a price tag hanging from it, displaying the price of $1.98.

1998–The U.S. Supreme Court rules that federal laws banning on-the-job sexual harassment also apply when both parties are the same sex.

2001–A massive car bomb explodes in front of the BBC Television Centre in London, England, seriously injuring 11 people. The attack is attributed to the Real IRA.

2001–Pop star, Michael Jackson, and his friend (and child star), Macaulay Culkin, spend the night shopping at a record store, in London, England, which stays open after hours to accommodate them.

2001–Singer, Glenn Hughes, of The Village People, dies of lung cancer in New York, New York, at age 50. He was buried in his “leatherman” outfit. He was the original "Biker" character in the disco group from 1977 to 1996.

2002–Seven American Special Operations Forces soldiers and 200 Al-Qaeda Fighters are killed, as American forces attempt to infiltrate the Shah-i-Kot Valley in Afghanistan, on a low-flying helicopter reconnaissance mission.

2004–Musician, John McGeoch, of Siouxsie and the Banshees, dies in his sleep in Launceston, Cornwall, England, at age 48.

2006–A final contact attempt is made with Pioneer 10 by the Deep Space Network. No response is received.

2008–Only two days after reaching 78 degrees, St. Louis, Missouri, receives nearly a foot of snow in seven hours, the city’s biggest snowstorm in 15 years.

2008–Game designer, Gary Gygax, dies from an inoperable abdominal aortic aneurysm in Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, at age 69. He co-created the role-playing game Dungeons & Dragons.

2009–The International Criminal Court (ICC) issues an arrest warrant for Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir for war crimes and crimes against humanity in Darfur. Al-Bashir is the first sitting head of state to be indicted by the ICC since its establishment in 2002.

2009–Playwright and screenwriter, Horton Foote, dies in Hartford, Connecticut, at age 92. He is best known for his screenplays for the 1962 film To Kill a Mockingbird and the 1983 film Tender Mercies. His other film scripts include Baby the Rain Must Fall starring Steve McQueen and Lee Remick, and The Trip to Bountiful starring Geraldine Page.

2012–Vladimir Putin wins the Russian Presidential election amid allegations of voter fraud.

2012–A series of explosions is reported at a munitions dump in Brazzaville, the capital of the Republic of the Congo, killing at least 250 people.

2012–Actress, Joan Taylor, dies in Santa Monica, California, at age 82. She was cast in many TV shows, notably in 18 episodes of the Western series The Rifleman. She appeared in the films 20 Million Miles to Earth, Earth vs. the Flying Saucers, Girls in Prison, Fort Yuma, War Paint, and The Savage.

2013–A plane crash in the Democratic Republic of the Congo kills six people.

2015–At least 34 miners die in a suspected gas explosion at the Zasyadko coal mine in the rebel-held Donetsk region of Ukraine.

2015–Entertainment industry executive, David Geffen, donates $100 million to New York's Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts to finance a major renovation. The performing arts building, long known as Avery Fisher Hall, will be renamed David Geffen Hall in September 2015. Avery Fisher Hall was named for Fisher, a violinist and high-fidelity pioneer, who founded the Fisher Radio Company, after he financed an earlier renovation in 1973.

2015–Producer and screenwriter, Harve Bennett, dies of oral cancer in Medford, Oregon, at age 84. Bennett produced the TV series The Mod Squad, Rich Man Poor Man, The Six Million Dollar Man, and The Bionic Woman. He also produced four of the “Star Trek” movies.

2016–Gunmen storm a retirement home in Yemen, run by a charity established by Mother Teresa. Sixteen people are killed, including four Catholic nuns.

2016–Retired neurosurgeon, Dr. Ben Carson, suspends his campaign for the Republican Party nomination for President of the United States. The expected announcement was made during a speech at the 2016 Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC).

2016–Writer, Pat Conroy, dies of pancreatic cancer in Beaufort, South Carolina, at age 70. His novels include The Water Is Wide, The Great Santini, The Lords of Discipline, and The Prince of Tides. The film, Conrack, is based on his book, The Water Is Wide, about a period of his life when he was hired to teach black children in a one-room schoolhouse on remote Daufuskie Island, South Carolina.

2017–Thousands of President Trump supporters convene near New York's Trump Tower, at the Washington Monument, and in dozens of other cities around the country, in what organizers billed as "March 4 Trump" demonstrations on behalf of the new president. The rallies also intend to show unity in the face of what organizers call "a seditious fringe" aiming to sabotage Trump's vision for the country.

2017–Mexico opens legal aide centers in its 50 U.S. consulates to defend its citizens' rights amid the United States "crackdown" on illegal immigration.

2017–The country of Jordan executes 15 people, including 10 who were convicted on terrorism charges with others related to incidents that go back as far as 2003. Amnesty International protests the executions which are carried out in "secrecy and without transparency." Jordan restored the death sentence by hanging in 2014.


PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Frederick I. Barbarossa; Hernan Cortes; William Herschel; an orange; John Quincy Adams; George Sand; Peter D. Ouspensky; William Randolph Hearst; Lois Wilson; John Garfield; Herbert Hoover; Barbara McNair on Ebony magazine; Paula Prentiss; Tara Browne; Antonin Autaud; Ronald and Nancy Reagan; Kay Lenz; Steven Weber; John Lennon in Chicago 1966; Cher, Sonny, and Chastity Bono; the Cray-1 supercomputer; Richard Manuel; Nestor Almendros; Minnie Pearl; Glenn Hughes of the Village People, Joan Taylor; and Pat Conroy.

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