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1965–Martin Luther King, Jr. leads the historic march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama. On the first attempt to begin this march two weeks earlier, the participants were brutally attacked by Alabama State Troopers and civilians as they tried to cross the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma. This time they were escorted by federal troops.

537–King Vitiges attempts to assault the northern and eastern city walls of Rome, but is repulsed at the Praenestine Gate, known as the Vivarium, by the defenders under the Byzantine generals Bessas and Peranius.

630–Emperor Heraclius returns the True Cross, one of the holiest Christian relics, to Jerusalem. The True Cross is the name for physical remnants which, by a Christian tradition, are believed to be from the cross upon which Jesus was crucified.

867–Osberht, King of Northumbria, dies during a battle with Vikings.

927–Emperor Taizu of Song is born Zhao Kuangyin in Luoyang, Henan, China.

1076–Robert I, Duke of Burgundy, dies in Fleurey-sur-Ouche, France, at age 65.

1152–The marriage of King Louis VII of France and Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine is annulled.

1188–Emperor Antoku accedes to the throne of Japan.

1227–Charles I of Naples is born in the Kingdom of France. Charles was the youngest son of Louis VIII of France and Blanche of Castile, and the younger brother of Louis IX of France and Alfonso II of Toulouse.

1349–Three thousand Jews are killed in the Black Death riots in Efurt, Germany.

1413–Henry V becomes the King of England.

1556–In Oxford, Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, is burned at the stake.

1617–Native American, Pocahontas, daughter of Powhatan, dies of unknown causes in Gravesend, Kent, England, at age 22. She is noted for her association with the colonial settlement at Jamestown, Virginia.

1656–James Ussher, dies of an internal hemorrhage in Reigate, Surrey, England, at age 75. He calculated the age of the Earth from the Bible. In his work, he deemed the date of the Creation to have been nightfall preceding October 23, 4004 BC.

1685–Composer, Johann Sebastian Bach, is born in Eisenach, Thuringia. The 11th child of a couple who died by the time Bach was 10, he was raised by his brother, Johann Christian Bach, who taught him organ and clavier. Bach worked as an organist in Thuringia and composed sacred music; he was court organist and a member of the court orchestra in Weimer; then, for the last 27 years of his life, he was a cantor, a church music director, and choir director in Liepzig. In his own lifetime he was such a renowned organist, that his talent for composition was overlooked, and he was not fully recognized until at least 50 years after his death.

1713–Francis Lewis, signer of the Declaration of Independence, is born in Llangurig, Powys, Wales. His home, located in Whitestone, on Queens, New York, was destroyed in the American Revolutionary War by British soldiers, who also arrested his wife and denied her a change of clothing or adequate food for weeks while in captivity.

1788–A fire destroys 856 buildings in New Orleans, Louisiana, leaving most of the town in ruins.

1790–Thomas Jefferson reports to President George Washington in New York as Secretary of State.

1800–With the church leadership driven out of Rome during an armed conflict, Pius VII is crowned Pope in Venice, Italy, with a temporary papal tiara made of papier-mâché.

1801–The Battle of Alexandria is fought between British and French forces near the ruins of Nicopolis in Egypt.

1801–Maria Theresa of Austria is born Maria Theresia Franziska Josepha Johanna Benedikta in Vienna, Austrian Empire.

1804–After four years of debate and planning, French leader, Napoleon Bonaparte, enacts a new legal framework known as the “Napoleonic Code.” It becomes French civil law.

1806–Benito Pablo Juarez Garcia, President of Mexico for five terms (1858-1872), is born in San Pablo Guelatao, Oaxaca, Mexico. He resisted the French occupation of Mexico, overthrew the Second Mexican Empire, restored the Republic, and used liberal measures to modernize the country.

1814–During the Napoleonic Wars, Austrian forces repel French troops in the Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube.

1829–An earthquake in Spain kills 6,000 people.

1843–Preacher William Miller, of Massachusetts, had predicted that Christ would return to Earth and the world would end on this day. Clearly, he was wrong.

1843–Guadalupe Victoria, first President of Mexico, dies in San Carlos Fortress, Perote, Veracruz, at age 56.

1844–The Bahá'í Era-Bahá'í calendar begins. This is the first day of the first year of the Bahá'í calendar. It is annually celebrated by members of the Bahá'í Faith as the Bahá'í New Year or Náw-Rúz.

1851–The Yosemite Valley is discovered in California.

1857–An earthquake in Tokyo, Japan, kills over 107,000 people.

1859–The Scottish National Gallery opens in Edinburgh, Scotland.

1859–The Zoological Society of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is incorporated.

1861–Alexander Stephens gives the Cornerstone Address at at the Athenaeum in Savannah, Georgia. Stephens' speech explains the fundamental differences between the constitutions of the Confederacy and that of the United States, enumerates contrasts between U.S. and Confederate ideologies and beliefs, lays out the Confederacy's causes for declaring secession, and defends the enslavement of African Americans.

1867–Florenz Ziegfeld, Jr., producer of The Ziegfield Follies (1907-1931), is born in Chicago, Illinois. He was a starmaker during the days of Vaudeville.

1871–Journalist, Henry Morton Stanley, begins his trek to Africa to find the missionary and explorer, David Livingstone.

1871–Otto von Bismarck is appointed Chancellor of the German Empire.

1887–German Expressionist architect, Erich Mendelsohn, is born in Allenstein, Prussia. He had a hand in developing the Art Deco and Streamline Moderne architecture movements. He is best known for the design of his own home as well as numerous commercial buildings, such as his 1921 design for the Mossehaus, the Herrmann hat factory in Luckenwalde, and the Einstein Tower in Pottsdam.

1891–A Hatfield marries a McCoy, ending the long feud between the two West Virginia families. The feud had started with an accusation of pig-stealing, and lasted for 20 years.

1896–Occultist and theosophist, William Quan Judge, dies in New York, New York, at age 44. He was a mystic, esotericist, and one of the founders of the original Theosophical Society.

1902–Slide guitarist, Son House, one of the leading exponents of the Delta blues style, is born Eddie James House, Jr. in Riverton, Mississippi.

1904–Candy maker, Forrest Edward Mars, Sr., is born in Wadena, Minnesota. He is best known for introducing M & M's and the Mars bar, as well as orchestrating the launch of Uncle Ben's Rice. He was the son of candy company Mars, Inc. founder, Frank C. Mars.

1906–Billionaire philanthropist, John D. Rockefeller III, is born in New York. He was a third-generation member of the prominent Rockefeller family: he was the eldest son of John D. Rockefeller, Jr. and Abby Aldrich Rockefeller. His siblings were Abby, Nelson, Laurance, Winthrop, and David. John III was at one time a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, the Foreign Policy Association, and the Institute of Pacific Relations, as well as being on the board of directors of Princeton University. In late 1950, he accompanied Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles, and Douglas MacArthur on a trip to Japan to conclude a peace treaty.

1910–Winemaker, Julio Gallo, is born in Oakland, California. He co-founded the E & J Gallo Winery with his brother, Ernest, in 1933. It is the largest winery in the U.S.

1913–The Great Dayton Flood in Dayton, Ohio, kills over 360 people and destroys 20,000 homes.

1919–The Hungarian Soviet Republic is established, becoming the first Communist government to be formed in Europe after the October Revolution in Russia.

1921–The New Economic Policy is implemented by the Bolshevik Party in response to the economic failure as a result of war communism.

1921–Politician, Abdul Salam Arif, is born ‘Abd ul-Salam Mohammed ‘Arif Aljumaily in Baghdad, British Mandate of Mesopotamia. He was the second President of Iraq.

1921–Engineer, Joe Sutter, is born Joseph F. Sutter in Seattle, Washington. He worked for the Boeing Airplane Company and was manager of the design team for the Boeing 747 under Malcolm T. Stamper, the head of the 747 project. Smithsonian Air and Space Magazine has described Sutter as the "father of the 747."

1922–Film producer and director, Russ Meyer, is born Russell Albion Meyer in San Leandro, California. He is known primarily for writing and directing a series of successful low-budget sexploitation films that featured campy humor and sly satire. His films include Fanny Hill, Motorpsycho, Faster, Pussycat! Kill! Kill!, Mondo Topless, Vixen!, Beyond the Valley of the Dolls, Supervixens, Up!, and Beneath the Valley of the Ultra-Vixens.

1923–Orchestra leader, Mort Lindsey, is born in Newark, New Jersey. He was conductor and musical director for Judy Garland, Barbra Streisand, Pat Boone, and Merv Griffin.

1923–Religious leader, Nirmala Srivastava, is born in Chindawara (present-day Madhya Pradesh), India. She founded Sahaja Yoga, a meditation technique and new religious movement. In her youth she stayed in the ashram of Mahatma Gandhi. Like her parents, she was involved with the struggle for Indian independence and, as a youth leader, was jailed for participating in the Quit India Movement in 1942.

1925–The Butler Act prohibits the teaching of human evolution in Tennessee.

1925–Iran adopts the Khorshidi solar Hijrah calendar.

1925–Syngman Rhee is removed from office after being impeached as the President of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.

1928–Aviator, Charles Lindbergh, is presented the Medal of Honor for his first trans-Atlantic flight.

1930–Actor, James Coco, is born in New York, New York. He appeared in the films Ensign Pulver, The Strawberry Statement, Tell Me That You Love Me, Junie Moon, Such Good Friends, Man of La Mancha, Murder by Death, and Only When I Laugh.

1933–Construction of Dachau, the first Nazi concentration camp, is completed.

1934–A fire destroys Hakodate Japan, killing about 1,500 people.

1934–Actor, Al Freeman, Jr., is born Albert Cornelius Freeman, Jr. in San Antonio, Texas. He is best known for the role of police captain Ed Hall on the soap opera One Life to Live, a role he played from 1972 through 1987. He appeared in the films Black Like Me, Ensign Pulver, For Pete’s Sake, Finian’s Rainbow, Castle Keep, My Sweet Charlie, and Malcolm X.

1935–Shah Reza Pahlavi officially declares that the international community will now call Persia by its native name, Iran, which means “Land of the Aryans.”

1937–Nineteen people in Ponce, Puerto Rico, are gunned down by a police squad acting under orders of U.S. appointed Governor, Blanton C. Winship.

1940–Paul Reynaud becomes Prime Minister of France.

1941–Joe Louis knocks out Abe Simon in 13 rounds to win the Heavyweight Boxing Championship.

1942–The Flying Tigers are incorporated into the U.S. Army Air Force.

1943–An assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler by Wehrmacht officer, Rudolf von Gersdorff, fails.

1943–Viv Stanshall, of The Bonzo Dog Band, is born in Shillingford, England. Among his satirical songs is Can Blue Men Sing the Whites?

1944–Actor, Timothy (Peter) Dalton, is born in Colwyn Bay, Denbighshire, Wales. He is best known for the role of James Bond in The Living Daylights (1987) and Licence to Kill (1989). He also appeared in the films The Lion in Winter, Wuthering Heights, Cromwell, The Voyeur, Mary, Queen of Scots, Sextette, Flash Gordon, Brenda Starr, The Rocketeer, and Naked in New York.

1945–British troops liberate Mandalay, Burma.

1945–Royal Air Force planes bomb Gestapo headquarters in Copenhagen, Denmark. They also accidentally hit a school, killing 125 civilians.

1945–Bulgaria and the Soviet Union successfully complete their defense of the north bank of the Drava River as the Battle of the Transdanubian Hills concludes.

1945–During World War II, Allied bombers begin a four-day raid over Germany.

1945–Rose Stone, keyboardist with Sly & the Family Stone, is born Rosemary Stewart. Her brothers are Sly Stone and Freddie Stone, who were also in the band.

1946–The Los Angeles Rams sign Kenny Washington, making him the first African American player in American football since 1933.

1946–Ray Dorset, of Mungo Jerry, is born Raymond Edward Dorset in Ashford, Middlesex, England. The group’s biggest hit was In the Summertime.

1947–President Truman signs Executive Order 9835, requiring all federal employees to have allegiance to the United States.

1949–Singer, Eddie Money, is born Edward Joseph Mahoney in New York, New York. His biggest hit was Two Tickets to Paradise.

1950–Roger Hodgson, of Supertramp, is born Charles Roger Pomfret Hodgson in Portsmouth, Hampshire, England.

1951–The U.S. sends 2,900,000 soldiers to Korea.

1952–Alan Freed presents the Moondog Coronation Ball, the first rock and roll concert, in Cleveland, Ohio. Its most remarkable feature was its mix of black and white musical performers, in a revue intended for a racially mixed audience, at a time when almost all performances, radio stations, and record labels were segregated by race. With an estimated 20,000 fans trying to crowd into an arena that held slightly more than half that, the fire authorities shut down the concert after the first song by opening act Paul "Hucklebuck" Williams ended. Freed made a public apology on WJW-Radio the next day.

1952–Tornadoes in Arkansas, Tennessee, Missouri, Mississippi, Alabama, and Kentucky cause 343 deaths and $15 million in damage.

1956–Carl Perkins is injured in a car crash that kills both his manager and his brother, Jay. By the time Perkins gets out of the hospital, Elvis Presley has already had a hit with Carl’s song Blue Suede Shoes.

1956–The 28th Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: Marty; Best Actor: Ernest Borgnine for Marty; Best Actress: Anna Magnani for The Rose Tattoo; Best Director: Delbert Mann for Marty; Best Foreign Film: Samurai, The Legend of Musashi (Japan). The ceremonies are held at RKO Pantages Theatre, Hollywood, California, and NBC Century Theatre, New York City. The hosts are Jerry Lewis (in Hollywood) and Claudette Colbert and Joseph L. Mankiewicz (in New York).

1957–Actress, Sabrina Le Beauf, is born in New Orleans, Louisiana. She is best known for the role of Sondra Huxtable Tibideaux on the TV comedy series The Cosby Show.

1958–The USSR conducts an atmospheric nuclear test.

1958–Comedian, (William) Brad Hall, is born in Santa Barbara, California. He is best known as a cast member of Saturday Night Live from 1982 to 1984. He is married to actress, Julia Louis-Dreyfus.

1958–Actor, Gary (Leonard) Oldman, is born in New Cross, London, England. He appeared in the films Sid and Nancy, Prick Up Your Ears, Chattahoochee, The Firm, Rosencrantz & Guilderstern Are Dead, State of Grace, Henry & June, JFK, Bram Stoker’s Dracula, True Romance, Immortal Beloved, Murder in the First, The Scarlet Letter, Air Force One, Lost in Space, The Contender, Hannibal, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, The Dark Knight, and Dawn of the Planet of the Apes. He was married to actress, Uma Thurman.

1960–Police open fire on a group of unarmed black demonstrators in Sharpeville, South Africa, killing 69 people and wounding 180 others.

1961–The Beatles perform at the Cavern Club in Liverpool, England, for their first night show there. The Swinging Blue Jeans top the bill. The Beatles like the Cavern Club, not least for the lack of violence that erupts frequently at other venues. For a fee of £5 per lunchtime session and £15 per night session, The Beatles sharpen the enormous talent that will take them to international fame. The small Cavern Club, which has no tables, is often filled with hundreds of Beatles fans who are packed in like sardines. The Beatles perform on a wooden stage that is only two feet off the ground, and they play only an arm's length from the tight crowds of fans (a closeness they will yearn for when they achieve world fame and have to play in stadiums, far-removed from their then-hysterical fans). John Lennon's manner is copied by the male fans, while the girls are attracted to Paul McCartney, some to George Harrison, but most of them to the group’s enigmatic drummer, Pete Best.

1961–Slim Jim Phantom, drummer for The Stray Cats, is born James McDonnell in Brooklyn, New York.

1962–The fast food chain, Taco Bell, is founded.

1962–Actor, Matthew Broderick, is born in Manhattan, New York. He has appeared in the films Max Dugan Returns, WarGames, Ladyhawke, Ferris Bueller’s Day Off, Project X, Biloxi Blues, Torch Song Trilogy, Family Business, Glory, Mrs. Parker and the Vicious Circle, The Cable Guy, Godzilla, and The Producers. His father is actor, James Broderick. He is married to actress, Sarah Jessica Parker.

1962–Comedienne, Rosie O'Donnell, is born on Commack, New York. She started her comedy career while still a teenager and her big break was on the talent show Star Search in 1984. She has hosted her own daytime talk show, The Rosie O'Donnell Show. She appeared in the films The Twilight of The Golds, A League of Their Own, Sleepless in Seattle, Another Stakeout, Fatal Instinct, I’ll Do Anything, The Flintstones, Exit to Eden, and Harriet the Spy.

1963–Alcatraz Federal Prison, the penitentiary on an island in San Francisco Bay in California, is closed.

1963–Singer, Barbra Streisand, marries actor, Elliot Gould.

1964–A selection of John Lennon’s verse and prose is published in The Saturday Evening Post, under the title “Beatalic Graphospasms.”

1964–For the first time in British recording history, all "Top Ten" singles in the U.K. are by British acts.

1965–NASA launches Ranger 9, the last in a series of unmanned lunar space probes.

1965–Martin Luther King, Jr. leads the historic march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama. On the first attempt to begin this march two weeks earlier, the participants were brutally attacked by Alabama State Troopers and civilians as they tried to cross the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma. This time they were escorted by federal troops.

1968–The Battle of Karameh takes place in Jordan between the Israel Defense Forces and the combined forces of the Jordanian Armed Forces and PLO.

1969–The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1974–Female impersonator, Candy Darling (born James Slattery), dies of lymphoma in New York, New York, at age 29. Her birth name was not spoken at her funeral. Her letters, sketches, and journal entries were compiled into the book My Face for the World to See. She appeared in the films Flesh, Brand X, Klute, Women in Revolt, An American Family, and Silent Night, Bloody Night.

1975–Ethiopia ends its monarchy after 3,000 years.

1976–Rockers, David Bowie and Iggy Pop, are busted for suspected marijuana possession in New York, but charges are later dropped.

1977–A 7.0 earthquake in Iran, near the Persian Gulf, kills 167 people and injures 556 others.

1979–The Egyptian Parliament unanimously approves a Peace Treaty with Israel.

1980–On the season finale of the prime time soap opera, Dallas, the character J.R. Ewing is shot by an unseen assailant, leading to the catchphrase “Who Shot J.R.?”

1980–President Jimmy Carter announces the U.S. boycott of the Olympics in Moscow to protest the Soviet war in Afghanistan.

1982–A 6.7 earthquake in the Hokkaido region of Japan, injures 110 people and causes extensive damage.

1983–The first cases of the West Bank fainting epidemic are seen: Israelis and Palestinians accuse each other of poison gas, but the cause is later determined mostly to be psychosomatic.

1984–"Strawberry Fields," a tear-shaped memorial garden in New York City's Central Park to honor John Lennon, is officially dedicated.

1985–Arthur Ashe is named to the International Tennis Hall of Fame.

1985–Actor, Sir Michael Redgrave, dies of Parkinson's disease in a nursing home in Denham, Buckinghamshire, England, at age 77. He was a stage and film actor, director, manager, and author. He appeared in the films The Lady Vanishes, Stolen Life, Mourning Becomes Electra, The Browning Version, The Importance of Being Earnest, Mr. Arkadin, 1984, The Happy Road, The Quiet American, The Innocents, The Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner, Oh! What a Lovely War, Goodbye Mr. Chips, and The Go-Between.

1986–Debi Thomas becomes the first African American to win the World Figure Skating Championship.

1987–Actor-singer, Dean Paul Martin, dies on San Gorgonio Mountain, California, at age 35. His Air National Guard F-4 Phantom jet fighter departed March Air Force Base and crashed in California's San Bernardino Mountains during a snowstorm, killing him and his Weapons Systems Officer, Captain Ramon Ortiz. In the 1960s, he was a member of the pop group, Dino, Desi & Billy. He appeared in the films Rough Night in Jericho, A Boy... a Girl, Players, Heart Like a Wheel, Made in U.S.A., and Backfire.

1987–Actor, Robert Preston, dies of lung cancer in Montecito, California, at age 68. He appeared in the films Beau Geste, Typhoon, The Lady from Cheyenne, The Night of January 16th, Reap the Wild Wind, This Gun for Hire, Whispering Smith, Tulsa, The Sundowners, The Dark at the Top of the Stairs, The Music Man, How the West Was Won, Junior Bonner, Mame, Semi-Tough, S.O.B., Victor Victoria, The Last Starfighter, and Finnegan Begin Again.

1988–Various Beatles home video tapes, “The Beatles at Shea Stadium,” “The Beatles in Tokyo,” “The Beatles in Washington D.C.,” and “The Beatles Magical Mystery Tour,” appear unofficially in America. Apple immediately calls for a halt on sales of the bootleg tapes.

1989–TV host, Dick Clark, announces his retirement as emcee of American Bandstand.

1989–Sports Illustrated reports allegations tying baseball player Pete Rose to baseball gambling.

1990–Namibia becomes independent after 75 years of South African rule.

1991–The Canadian Supreme Court rules 9-0 that a fetus is not a legal person.

1991–The man who invented the electric guitar, Leo Fender, dies in Fullerton, California, at age 81. He founded Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company. In January 1965, he sold the company to CBS.

1992–Actor, John Ireland, dies of leukemia in Santa Barbara, California, at age 78. He appeared in the films Red River, All the King’s Men, Southwest Passage, Queen Bee, Gunfight at the O.K. Corral, Wild in the Country, and I Saw What You Did.

1994–The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change enters into force.

1994–The Grateful Dead perform their last concert with Jerry Garcia in Cleveland, Ohio.

1994–Actor, Dudley Moore, is arrested for hitting his girlfriend.

1994–The 66th Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: Schindler's List; Best Actor: Tom Hanks for Philadelphia; Best Actress: Holly Hunter for The Piano; Best Director: Steven Spielberg for Schindler's List; Best Foreign Film: Belle Epoque (Spain). The ceremonies are held at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion, Los Angeles, California. The host is Whoopi Goldberg.

1994–Actor, MacDonald Carey, dies of cancer in Beverly Hills, California, at age 81. He is best known for the role of Dr. Tom Horton on the soap opera Days of Our Lives. He appeared in the films Shadow of a Doubt, Streets of Laredo, The Lawless, The Great Missouri Raid, Stranger at My Door, Blue Denim, These Are the Damned, Tammy and the Doctor, and End of the World.

1994–Actor, Dack Rambo, dies of AIDs in Delano, California, at age 52. He is best known for his role on the TV series The Guns of Will Sonnett. He also was cast in the soap operas All My Children and Another World. He appeared in the films Which Way to the Front?, Nightmare Honeymoon, Rich and Famous, and The Spring.

1999–Bertrand Piccard and Brian Jones become the first men to circumnavigate the Earth in a hot air balloon.

1999–In the U.K. News of the World, there is a story about the apparent “discovery” of John Lennon’s diary tape from 1979. It was from this tape that two books Lennon In America and Nowhere Man: The Last Days of John Lennon came about (both books cited many other sources aside from Lennon’s audio diaries in regard to their content).

1999–British comedian, Ernie Wise, dies of heart failure in Wexham, Buckinghamshire, England, at age 73. He is best known as one half of the comedy duo, Morecambe and Wise, who became a national institution on British TV.

2000–Pope John Paul II makes his first pontifical visit to Israel.

2001–South Korean businessman, Chung Ju-yung, dies in Songpa District, Seoul, South Korea. In 1946, after the liberation of Korea from Japanese control, Chung started Hyundai and Hyundai Civil Industries in anticipation of the post-war reconstruction and industrialization.

2002–In Pakistan, Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh (along with three other suspects) are charged with murder for their part in the kidnapping and killing of Wall Street Journal reporter, Daniel Pearl.

2005–Entertainer, Bobby Short, dies of of leukemia in New York, New York, at age 80. He was a cabaret performer, best known for his interpretations of songs by popular composers of the first half of the 20th century, including Rodgers and Hart, Cole Porter, Jerome Kern, Harold Arlen, Richard A. Whiting, Vernon Duke, Noël Coward, and George and Ira Gershwin. He also championed African-American composers of the same period, such as Eubie Blake, James P. Johnson, Andy Razaf, Fats Waller, Duke Ellington, and Billy Strayhorn. Short began his career in clubs in the 1940s. In 1968, he was offered a two-week stint at the Café Carlyle in New York City. Short (accompanied by Beverly Peer on bass and Dick Sheridan on drums) became an institution at the Carlyle and remained there as a featured performer for over 35 years. He appeared in the films Call Me Mister, Roots: The Next Generation, Hardhat and Legs, You're the Top: The Cole Porter Story, Hannah and Her Sisters, For Love or Money, and Man of the Century.

2006–The social media site, Twitter, is founded.

2009–Four police officers are shot and killed, and a fifth is wounded, during two shootings in Oakland, California.

2011–Bluesman, Pinetop Perkins, dies in Austin, Texas, at age 97. Perkins played with some of the most influential blues and rock and roll performers in American history. He recorded Pinetop's Boogie Woogie (written by Pinetop Smith) at Sam Phillips' Sun Studio in Memphis, Tennessee.

2013–The European Space Agency reveals new data indicating that the Universe is 13.82 billion years old.

2015–The New Mexico state legislature passes a bill to abolish civil assest forteiture. New Mexico police must now convict a person of a crime and prove their property was used in the crime, before it must be forfeited to the authorities. Any money gained from the property will now go to the state’s general fund instead of police budgets, so that police do not have and incentive to indiscriminately take assets from citizens.

2015–One person dies and another is severely injured after a cliff collapses on the Pacific Coast north of San Francisco, California. The day before the collapse, the Point Reyes National Seashore had posted a photo on Facebook of a fissure in the rock structure, with a warning to use caution if near the area.

2016–Two near-Earth objects, 252P/LINEAR and P/2016 BA14, will safely pass by Earth at relatively close distances today and Tuesday (March 22nd).

2016–Sir Paul McCartney files legal papers in the U.S., as part of an attempt to reclaim the publishing rights to The Beatles' back catalogue. Although he co-wrote most of the band's hits, the star has never controlled the publishing. However, the U.S. copyright act of 1976 gives writers the opportunity to reclaim the rights after 56 years. The Lennon-McCartney catalogue becomes available in 2018, after being owned for many years by the late Michael Jackson.

2016–Actor, Peter Brown, dies of Parkinson's disease in Phoenix, Arizona, at age 80. He starred in two TV Westerns: Lawman and Laredo. He appeared in the films Darby’s Rangers, Too Much Too Soon, Marjorie Morningstar, No Time for Sergeants, Onionhead, Summer Magic, Ride the Wild Surf, Kitten with a Whip, The Concrete Jungle, and The Wedding Planner.

2017–Citing security concerns because of recent terrorist activity, the American and British governments impose a ban affecting inbound-passengers flying from much of the Middle East and North Africa. The ban includes airplane cabin passenger-accessible items such as laptops, tablets, and other electronic devices that are larger than a smartphone. Such electronic devices will still be allowed on board in checked baggage which is thus more closely screened and passenger-inaccessible.

2017–Tomi Lahren's show on Glenn Beck’s channel, The Blaze, is pulled for a week after the 24-year-old host said she's pro-choice during an appearance on The View. Lahren’s denouncement of pro-lifers sparks a backlash from her co-workers, as well as other prominent conservatives.

2017–Television personality, Chuck Barris, dies of natural causes in Palisades, New York, at age 87. He was a game show creator, producer, and host. Barris formed his production company, Chuck Barris Productions, on June 14, 1965. He is best known for hosting The Gong Show and creating The Dating Game and The Newlywed Game.

2018–Fifteen new alien worlds are discovered, and three exoplanets, larger than Earth, are also seen around the dwarf star K2-155.

2018–Mark Anthony Conditt, a suspect in the bombings in and around Austin, Texas, is dead after detonating a bomb in his vehicle. Police warn residents that while they believe the bomber is deceased, he may have sent more packages prior to his death.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: The True Cross; Johann Sebastian Bach; Thomas Jefferson; Yosemite Valley; Erich Mendelsohn; John D. Rockefeller; Nirmala Srivastava; Paul Reynaud; Ray Dorset; Moondog Coronation Ball poster; a poster for Marty; The Beatles at the Cavern Club; Matthew Broderick; Martin Luther King, Jr. leads the historic march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama; "Who Killed J.R.?" on Time magazine; Michael Redgrave; Robert Preston; Leo Fender; Nowhere Man by Robert Rosen; Bobby Short; and Sir Paul McCartney.

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