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1904–Writer and illustrator, Dr. Seuss, is born Theodor Seuss Geisel in Springfield, Massachusetts. While working as a freelance cartoonist, under the pseudonym Dr. Seuss, he will write his first book, And To Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street, which is rejected by 27 publishers before Vanguard Press picks it up. The Cat in the Hat, designed specifically for beginning readers, will be published in 1957. In all he wrote 46 children's books, filled with fantastic characters, and written in rhyme. His books have inspired numerous film adaptations, including 11 television specials, four feature films, four television series, and a Broadway musical.



274–Persian prophet, Mani, dies in prison in Gundeshapur, Sassanid Empire (present-day Iran), at age 58. His corpse was decapitated with the head placed on a spike.

537–The Ostrogoth army, under King Vitiges, begins the siege of Rome.

986–Louis V becomes King of the Franks.

1121–Dirk VI becomes the Count of Holland.

1127–Charles the Good, Count of Flanders, is assassinated.

1316–Robert II, King of Scots, is born Robert Stewart at Paisley Abbey, Renfrewshire Scotland. He was the first monarch of the House of Stewart.

1333–King Wladyslaw I of Poland dies in Kraków, Poland, at age 72.

1444–Skanderbeg organizes a group of Albanian nobles to form the League of Lezhë.

1458–George of Podebrady is chosen as the King of Bohemia.

1459–Pope Adrian VI is born Adriaan Floriszoon Boeyens in Utrecht, Bishopric of Utrecht, Holy Roman Empire. Pope Adrian VI and his eventual successor, Pope Marcellus II, are the only popes of the modern era to retain their baptismal names after their election.

1476–The Old Swiss Confederacy hands Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, a major defeat in the Battle of Grandson in Canton of Neuchâtel.

1484–The College of Arms is formally incorporated by Royal Charter, signed by King Richard III of England.

1498–Vasco da Gama's fleet visits the Island of Mozambique.

1561–Mendoza, Argentina, is founded by Spanish conquistador Pedro del Castillo.

1619–Anne of Denmark dies of a form of dropsy at Hampton Court Palace, Surrey, London, England. She was Queen consort of Scotland, England, and Ireland, as the wife of King James VI and I.

1657–A fire in Edo (present-day Tokyo), Japan, causes more than 100,000 deaths and burns for three days.

1717–The Loves of Mars and Venus is the first ballet performed in England.

1769–Politician, DeWitt Clinton, is born in Little Britain, Province of New York. He was the sixth Governor of New York.

1776–Americans begin shelling British troops in Boston, Massachusetts.

1791–Long-distance communication speeds up with the unveiling of a semaphore machine in Paris, France. Invented by Claude Chappe, it is a system of conveying information by means of visual signals, using towers with pivoting shutters, also known as blades or paddles.

1793–Samuel “Sam” Houston, the first President of the Republic of Texas (1836-1838 and 1841-1844), is born in Rockbridge County, Virginia. He is best known for his role in bringing Texas into the United States as a constituent state: his victory at the Battle of San Jacinto secured the independence of Texas from Mexico.

1797–The Bank of England issues the first one-pound and two-pound banknotes.

1799–The U.S. Congress standardizes weights and measures.

1807–The U.S. Congress bans the slave trade effective January 1, 1808. The act is to "prohibit the importation of slaves into any port or place within the jurisdiction of the United States, from any foreign kingdom, place or country."

1808–The inaugural meeting of the Wernerian Natural History Society, a former Scottish learned society, is held in Edinburgh, Scotland.

1810–Pope Leo XIII is born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci in Carpineto Romano, département of Rome, French Empire. He was the first pope to never have held any control over the Papal States, after they were dissolved by 1870.

1811–In the Argentine War of Independence, a royalist fleet defeats a small flotilla of revolutionary ships in the Battle of San Nicolás on the River Plate.

1815–The signing takes place of the Kandyan Convention treaty by British invaders and the leaders of the Kingdom of Kandy.

1819–The United States passes its first immigration law.

1824–Interstate commerce comes under federal control in the U.S.

1825–Roberto Cofresí, one of the last successful Caribbean pirates, is defeated in combat and captured by authorities.

1835–Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, dies from a sudden fever in Vienna, Austria, at age 67.

1836–The Republic of Texas declares independence from Mexico.

1846–A storm hits Virginia and the Carolinas. It causes $500,000 damage, and in North Carolina 50 families are drowned, as are 1,000 cattle on Notts Island.

1847–Jules de Polignac, Premier of France, dies of the effects of imprisonment in Paris, France, at age 66.

1853–The Territory of Washington is organized after separating from Oregon Territory.

1855–Nicholas I of Russia dies of pneumonia at Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire, at age 58. There were rumors that he committed suicide. Alexander II becomes the Tsar of Russia.

1859–The two-day Great Slave Auction begins. It is the largest such auction in United States history.

1861–Nevada Territory and Dakota Territory are organized.

1865–The Völkner Incident takes place during the East Cape War in New Zealand.

1867–The U.S. Congress creates the Department of Education.

1876–Pope Pius XII is born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli in Rome, Kingdom of Italy. A pre-war critic of Nazism, Pius XII lobbied world leaders to avoid war, calling for love, compassion, and charity to prevail over war. While the Vatican was officially neutral during the war, Pius XII maintained links to the German Resistance, used diplomacy to aid the victims of the war and lobby for peace, and spoke out against race based murders and other atrocities. After the war, Pius XII advocated peace and reconciliation, including lenient policies towards Axis and Axis-satellite nations.

1877–Just two days before inauguration, the U.S. Congress declares Rutherford B. Hayes the winner of the election, even though Samuel J. Tilden had won the popular vote on November 7, 1876.

1882–Queen Victoria narrowly escapes an assassination attempt by Roderick McLean.

1887–Harry E. Soref is born. He is the inventor of the laminated steel padlock and founder of the Master Lock Company in 1921.

1897–Marconi is granted his first wireless patent.

1899–The Mount Rainier National Park is established in the state of Washington.

1900–Composer, Kurt (Julian) Weill, is born in Dessau, Germany. He was a leading composer for the stage who was best known for his fruitful collaborations with Bertolt Brecht. His songs, particularly those written for the operettas Threepenny Opera and Street Scene, have been covered by Louis Armstrong, Bobby Darin, David Bowie, The Doors, Nick Cave, Liza Minnelli, and Leonard Nimoy.

1901–The United States Steel Corporation is founded as a result of a merger between Carnegie Steel Company and Federal Steel Company. It becomes the first corporation in the world with a market capital over $1 billion.

1901–The U.S. Congress passes the Platt Amendment, limiting the autonomy of Cuba as a condition of the withdrawal of American troops.

1903–The Martha Washington Hotel opens in New York City, becoming the first hotel exclusively for women.

1904–Writer and illustrator, Dr. Seuss, is born Theodor Seuss Geisel in Springfield, Massachusetts. While working as a freelance cartoonist, under the pseudonym Dr. Seuss, he will write his first book, And To Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street, which is rejected by 27 publishers before Vanguard Press picks it up. In all he wrote 46 children's books, filled with fantastic characters, and written in rhyme. His books have inspired numerous film adaptations, including 11 television specials, four feature films, four television series, and a Broadway musical. His classics include If I Ran the Zoo (1950), Horton Hears a Who! (1955), If I Ran the Circus (1956), The Cat in the Hat (1957), How the Grinch Stole Christmas! (1957), and Green Eggs and Ham (1960).

1914–Film director, Martin Ritt, is born in New York, New York. His films include Edge of the City, No Down Payment, The Long Hot Summer, The Sound and the Fury, Paris Blues, Hud, The Outrage, Hombre, The Great White Hope, Sounder, Norma Rae, Cross Creek, Murphy’s Romance, Nuts, and Stanley & Iris.

1917–Puerto Ricans are granted U.S. citizenship.

1917–Actor and orchestra leader, Desi Arnaz, is born Desiderio Alberto Arnaz y de Acha III in Santiago, Cuba. His father was Santiago's youngest mayor and also served in the Cuban House of Representatives. His maternal grandfather was Alberto de Acha, an executive at Bacardi Rum. He is best remembered for the role of Ricky Ricardo in the TV comedy series I Love Lucy, starring with Lucille Ball, to whom he was married at the time. With Ball, he founded Desilu Productions. At that time, most television programs were broadcast live, and as the largest markets were in New York, the rest of the country received only kinescope images. Karl Freund, Arnaz's cameraman, and even Arnaz himself have been credited with the development of the multiple-camera setup production style using adjacent sets in front of a live audience that became the standard for subsequent situation comedies. The use of film enabled every station around the country to broadcast high-quality images of the show. Arnaz was told that it would be impossible to allow an audience onto a sound stage, but he worked with Freund to design a set that would accommodate an audience, allow filming, and also adhere to fire and safety codes. Arnaz convinced the network executives to allow Desilu to cover all additional costs associated with filming, under the stipulation that Desilu owned and controlled all rights to the film. Arnaz's unprecedented arrangement is widely considered to be one of the shrewdest deals in television history. As a result of his foresight, Desilu reaped the profits from all reruns of the series. Desilu also produced The Andy Griffith Show, The Dick Van Dyke Show, The Lucy Show, and Star Trek. Arnaz appeared in the films Too Many Girls, Father Takes a Wife, Four Jacks and a Jill, The Navy Comes Through, Bataan, The Long Long Trailer, and Forever, Darling. His children (with Lucille Ball) are actress, Lucie Arnaz, and actor Desi Arnaz, Jr.

1919–The first Communist International meets in Moscow.

1919–Actress, Jennifer Jones, is born Phyllis Lee Isley in Tulsa, Oklahoma. She appeared in the films The Song of Bernadette, Since You Went Away, Duel in the Sun, Portrait of Jennie, Madame Bovary, Ruby Gentry, Beat the Devil, Terminal Station (aka Indiscretion of an American Wife), Love Is a Many-Splendored Thing, Good Morning, Miss Dove, The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit, A Farewell to Arms, Tender is the Night, and The Towering Inferno. She was married to Robert Walker, David O. Selznick, and Norton Simon.

1923–Politician, Robert (Henry) Michel, is born in Peoria, Illinois. He was a member of the Republican Party who served in the U.S. House of Representatives for 38 years. He represented central Illinois' 18th congressional district, and was the GOP leader in Congress, serving as Minority Leader for the last 14 years (1981-1995) of a decades-long era of Democratic Party dominance of the House.

1923–Influential flat-picking guitarist, Doc Watson, is born in Deep Gap, North Carolina.

1925–The U.S. Government institutes a system of highway numbering that still exists today. Even numbered highways run east-west, while odd-numbered ones run north-south.

1930–Actor, John Cullum, is born in Knoxville, Tennessee. He is best known for the role of tavern owner, Holling Vincoeur, on the TV drama series Northern Exposure for six seasons. He appeared in the films Hamlet, Hawaii, 1776, The Prodigal, and Marie.

1930–Writer, D.H. Lawrence, dies of tuberculosis in the south of France at age 44. Another account says that he died in Taos, New Mexico, most likely at the home of Tony and Mabel Dodge Luhan, where he spent a great deal of time. His best known novel is Lady Chatterley’s Lover. His collected works represent an extended reflection upon the dehumanizing effects of modernity and industrialization.

1931–Soviet leader, Mikhail S. Gorbachev, is born in Privolnoye, USSR.

1931–Novelist and social commentator, Tom Wolfe, is born Thomas Kennerly Wolfe, Jr. in Richmond, Virginia. The son of a gentleman farmer, Wolfe went off to Yale University, then worked as a reporter for several newspapers, including the New York Herald Tribune. The Kandy-Kolored Tangerine-Flake Streamline Baby was the title of Wolfe's first book, a collection of 22 magazine and newspaper pieces published in 1965. His book The Bonfire of the Vanities was one of the top 10 best-selling books of the 1980s, and his psychedelic masterpiece, The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, is an excellent account of the early days of San Francisco’s Haight-Ashbury, The Grateful Dead, Ken Kesey, and The Merry Pranksters.

1933–The most powerful earthquake in 180 years hits Japan.

1933–The classic film, King Kong, premiers at Radio City Music Hall in New York City.

1937–The Steel Workers Organizing Committee signs a collective bargaining agreement with U.S. Steel, leading to unionization of the American steel industry.

1939–Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli is elected Pope and takes the name Pius XII.

1939–Actress, BarBara Luna, is born Barbara Ann Luna in Manhattan, New York. Luna has appeared in 500 television shows, including Walt Disney's Zorro, Perry Mason, The Wild Wild West, The Big Valley, Gunsmoke, Bonanza, The Outer Limits, Hawaiian Eye, Hawaii Five-O, Charlie's Angels, and Mission: Impossible. She appeared in the films Elmer Gantry, The Devil at 4 O’Clock, Five Weeks in a Balloon, Ship of Fools, and Women in Chains. She was married to actor, Doug McClure.

1939–Archaeologist and egyptologist, Howard Carter, dies of Hodgkin's disease in Kensington, London, England, at age 64. On November 4, 1922, Carter's excavation group found steps that led to Tutankhamun's tomb (subsequently designated KV62): the tomb that would be considered the best preserved and most intact pharaonic tomb ever found in the Valley of the Kings.

1941–The first German military units enter Bulgaria after it joins the Axis Pact.

1942–Novelist, John Irving, is born John Wallace Blunt, Jr. in Exeter, New Hampshire. He is best known for his novel, The World According to Garp, published in 1978. His other books include Setting Free the Bears, The Hotel New Hampshire, and The Cider House Rules.

1943–In the Battle of the Bismarck Sea, the United States and Australian forces sink Japanese convoy ships.

1943–Tony Meehan, drummer for The Shadows, is born Daniel Joseph Anthony Meehan in New End, Hampstead, North London, England. Meehan was nicknamed "The Baron" by his many admirers and friends within the British pop/rock music industry. He has influenced many thousands of teenage boys and adolescents to take up music as a career as a result of his iconic performance in Cliff Richard's film The Young Ones.

1944–The 16th Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: Casablanca; Best Actor: Paul Lukas for Watch on the Rhine; Best Actress: Jennifer Jones for The Song of Bernadette; Best Director: Michael Curtiz for Casablanca. The ceremonies are held at Grauman's Chinese Theatre, Hollywood, California. The host is Jack Benny.

1944–Rocker, Lou Reed, is born Louis Allen Firbank in Freeport, New York. He is best known as the lead singer of the Velvet Underground, and for his 1973 hit single Walk on the Wild Side.

1946–Ho Chi Minh is elected President of North Vietnam.

1949–Rock guitarist, (William) Rory Gallagher, is born in Ballyshannon, County Donegal, Ireland.

1949–Captain James Gallagher lands his B-50 Superfortress Lucky Lady II in Fort Worth, Texas, after completing the first non-stop, around-the-world airplane flight in 94 hours and one minute.

1949–Singer, Eddie Money, is born Edward Joseph Mahoney in Brooklyn, New York. His biggest hit was Two Tickets to Paradise.

1950–One of the Baby Boomers' favorite toys, Silly Putty, is invented.

1950–Singer, Karen (Anne) Carpenter, of The Carpenters, is born in New Haven, Connecticut. The duo had hits with Close to You, We’ve Only Just Begun, For All We Know, Rainy Days and Mondays, Superstar, Hurting Each Other, Yesterday Once More, and Top of the World.

1952–Actress, Laraine Newman, is born in Los Angeles, California. She is best known for being an original cast member of Saturday Night Live. She has appeared in the films TunnelVision, American Hot Wax, Stardust Memories, Wholly Moses, Perfect, and Invaders from Mars.

1955–President Eisenhower signs an act raising the salary of Vice President from $30,000 to $35,000; Congressman from $15,000 to $22,500; Supreme Court Justice from $22,500 to $35,000; and Associate Judge from $25,000 to $35,000.

1955–King Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia abdicates the throne in favor of his father, King Norodom Suramarit.

1955–Singer, Jay (Wesley) Osmond, of The Osmond Brothers, is born in Ogden, Utah. He is a world-class drummer who started his career at the age of two.

1956–Morocco declares its independence from France.

1956–Drummer, John Cowsill, of The Cowsills, is born in Newport, Rhode Island. He is married to Vicki Peterson, of The Bangles.

1958–Yemen announces it will join the United Arab Republic.

1960–Elvis Presley, having completed his stint with the U.S. Army, leaves Germany and his teenage sweetheart, Priscilla Beaulieu, behind to return to American civilian life. On the way, his plane refuels in Scotland's Prestwick Airport, marking the first and only time The King will set foot in the U.K.

1960–Lucille Ball files for divorce from Desi Arnaz, ending their 20-year marriage and the “I Love Lucy” franchise on CBS-TV.

1962–President Kennedy announces that the U.S. will resume above-ground nuclear testing.

1962–In Burma, the army led by General Ne Win seizes power in a coup d'état.

1962–Wilt Chamberlain sets the single-game scoring record in the National Basketball Association by scoring 100 points.

1962–Rocker, Jon Bon Jovi, is born John Francis Bongiovi, Jr. in Perth Amboy, New Jersey. He has released two solo albums and 12 studio albums with his band, Bon Jovi, which have sold over 130 million albums worldwide, making them one of the world's best-selling music artists. He has appeared in the films Young Guns II, Moonlight and Valentino, Homegrown, No Looking Back, Sex and the City, and Pay It Forward.

1963–Tussaud's London Wax Museum opens in St. Petersburg Beach, Florida. The museum is initially quite popular, and would eventually showcase more than 120 wax figures in elaborate scenes from history, entertainment, and a gory chamber of horrors. Due to a lessening interest of the public in viewing wax figures, it would close its doors on January 15, 1989.

1963–Rodeo bullrider, Tuff Hedeman, is born Richard Neale Hedeman in El Paso, Texas. He is an American retired three-time PRCA World Champion bull rider, the 1995 Professional Bull Riders (PBR) World Champion, and the ambassador of Championship Bull Riding (CBR).

1964–The Beatles' Twist and Shout backed with There's a Place is released in the U.S. on Tollie Records, the fourth label to release a Beatles record in America.

1964–Filming begins on The Beatles' first movie, A Hard Day's Night, although the film has yet to be titled. The Beatles have to join the actor's union minutes before getting on the train at Paddington Station so that filming can begin. Model, Pattie Boyd, whose train sequence with The Beatles is filmed this day, meets her future husband, George Harrison.

1965–The U.S. and South Vietnamese Air Force begin Operation Rolling Thunder, a sustained bombing campaign against North Vietnam.

1967–The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1967–The 9th Annual Grammy Awards announces its winners. Record of the Year: Frank Sinatra for Strangers in the Night; Album of the Year: Frank Sinatra for A Man and His Music; Song of the Year: John Lennon and Paul McCartney (songwriters) for Michelle; Best Vocal Performance, Male: Frank Sinatra for Strangers in the Night; Best Vocal Performance, Female: Eydie Gorme for If He Walked Into My Life; Best Performance by a Vocal Group: The Anita Kerr Singers for A Man and a Woman; Best Country & Western Performance: David Houston (singer) for Almost Persuaded; Best Rhythm & Blues Performance: Ray Charles for Crying Time; Best Rock and Roll Performance: New Vaudeville Band for Winchester Cathedral; Best Instrumental Performance: Herb Alpert for What Now My Love; Best New Artist: José Feliciano. The ceremonies are held Chicago, Illinois; Nashville, Tennessee; Los Angeles, California; and New York. There is no host.

1969–The first test flight of the Anglo-French Concorde is conducted in Toulouse, France.

1969–Soviet and Chinese forces clash during a Sino-Soviet conflict at a border outpost on the Ussuri River.

1970–Rhodesia declares itself a republic, breaking its last links with Great Britain.

1970–John Lennon agrees to experiment with Primal Scream therapy, the psychotherapy technique pioneered by Dr. Arthur Janov. John’s interest was aroused after Janov sent him a copy of his new book, The Primal Scream, which chronicles the theory behind his techniques. The book states that neurosis is a defense mechanism designed by the psyche to ease forgotten childhood pain, and can be treated by uncovering the root of that pain. The “primal scream” is the moment of unleashed anguish and passion, which breaks through the defensive blocks imposed by the vulnerable psyche. Lennon did not complete the recommended weeks of therapy sessions.

1972–The Pioneer 10 space probe is launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, with a mission to explore the outer planets.

1974–The 16th Annual Grammy Awards announces its winners. Record of the Year: Roberta Flack for Killing Me Softly With His Song; Album of the Year: Stevie Wonder (producer & artist) for Innervisions; Song of the Year: Charles Fox & Norman Gimbel (songwriters) for Killing Me Softly With His Song; Best Vocal Performance, Male: Stevie Wonder for You Are the Sunshine of My Life; Best Vocal Performance, Female: Roberta Flack for Killing Me Softly With His Song; Best Performance by a Vocal Group: Gladys Knight & the Pips for Neither One of Us (Wants to Be the First to Say Goodbye); Best Country & Western Performance: Charlie Rich for Behind Closed Doors; Best Rhythm & Blues Performance: Gladys Knight & the Pips for Midnight Train to Georgia; Best Instrumental Performance: Eumir Deodato for Also Sprach Zarathustra (2001: A Space Odyssey); Best New Artist: Bette Midler. The ceremonies are held at the Hollywood Palladium, Hollywood, California. There is no host.

1977–Libya becomes the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya as the General People's Congress adopts the "Declaration on the Establishment of the Authority of the People."

1977–Rock singer, Chris Martin, of Coldplay, is born Christopher Anthony John Martin in Exeter, Devon, England. Since the release of their first album, Parachutes, in 2000, the band has had international fame and success. He was married to actress Gwyneth Paltrow. While Paltrow was dealing with her father's death, Martin the song Fix You.

1978–Czech Vladimír Remek becomes the first non-Russian or non-American to go into space, when he is launched aboard Soyuz 28.

1981–Actress, Bryce Dallas Howard, is born in Los Angeles, California. She has appeared in the films The Village, Manderlay, As You Like It, Lady in the Water, Spider-Man 3, The Twilight Saga: Eclipse, Hereafter, and Jurassic World. She is the daughter of actor, Ron Howard. Actor, Rance Howard, is her grandfather; actor, Clint Howard, is her uncle; and actor, Henry Winkler, is her godfather.

1983–The USSR conducts an underground nuclear test.

1983–A new digital audio system, a five-inch compact disc (CD) containing up to one hour of music, is launched in America and other markets by Sony, Philips, and Polygram. The players had previously only been available in Japan.

1984–Ray Kroc's first McDonald's franchise in Des Plaines, Illinois, shuts down. It had opened back in April 1955.

1985–The U.S. approves a screening test for AIDS.

1987–Actor, Randolph Scott, dies of heart and lung disease in Beverly Hills, California, at age 89. His films include The Last of the Mohicans, Go West, Young Man, Jesse James, My Favorite Wife, Belle Starr, Colt .45, The Tall T, Ride Lonesome, and Ride the High Country.

1987–Geographer, Lolo Soetoro, dies of liver failure in Jakarta, Indonesia, at age 52. He was the Indonesian step-father of Barack Obama.

1988–The 30th Annual Grammy Awards announces its winners. Record of the Year: Paul Simon for Graceland; Album of the Year: U2 for The Joshua Tree; Song of the Year: Barry Mann, Cynthia Weil & James Horner (songwriters) for Somewhere Out There; Best Vocal Performance, Male: Sting for Bring on the Night; Best Vocal Performance, Female: Whitney Houston for I Wanna Dance With Somebody (Who Loves Me); Best Performance by a Vocal Group: Bill Medley & Jennifer Warnes for (I've Had) the Time of My Life; Best Country & Western Performance: Emmylou Harris, Dolly Parton, and Linda Ronstadt for Trio; Best Rhythm & Blues Performance: Aretha Franklin & George Michael for I Knew You Were Waiting (For Me); Best Rock Performance: Bruce Springsteen for Tunnel of Love; Best Instrumental Performance: Larry Carlton for Minute By Minute; Best New Artist: Jody Watley. The ceremonies are held at Radio City Music Hall, New York, New York. The host is Billy Crystal.

1989–Twelve European Community nations agree to ban the production of all chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) by the end of the century.

1990–Nelson Mandela is elected deputy President of the African National Congress.

1991–The battle at Rumaila Oil Field brings an end to the Gulf War.

1991–Singer-songwriter, Serge Gainsbourg, dies of a heart attack in Paris, France, at age 62. He was a pianist, film composer, poet, painter, screenwriter, writer, actor, and director. He is regarded as one of the most important figures in French popular music. His funeral brought Paris to a standstill, and French President François Mitterrand said of him, "He was our Baudelaire, our Apollinaire... He elevated the song to the level of art." His home at the well-known address 5bis Rue de Verneuil is still covered in graffiti and poems.

1992–Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldovia, San Marino, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan join the United Nations.

1992–Actress, Sandy Dennis, dies of ovarian cancer in Westport, Connecticut, at age 54. She appeared in the films Splendor in the Grass, Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, Up the Down Staircase, The Fox, Sweet November, The Out of Towners, The Four Seasons, and Come Back to the Five and Dime, Jimmy Dean, Jimmy Dean.

1995–Researchers at Fermilab announce the discovery of the top quark.

1996–Actor, Lyle Talbot, dies of congestive heart failure in San Francisco, California, at age 94. He is best known for the role of Joe Randolph on the sitcom The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet. He appeared in the films Three on a Match, The Life of Jimmy Dolan, Mandalay, Appointment with Murder, Glen or Glenda?, and Plan 9 from Outer Space.

1997–Saudi Arab billionaire, Prince al-Waleed bin Talal, acquires 5% of the computer company, Apple.

1998–Data sent from the Galileo spacecraft indicates that Jupiter's moon, Europa, has a liquid ocean under a thick crust of ice.

1999–Singer, Dusty Springfield, dies of breast cancer in Henley-on-Thames, Oxfordshire, England, at age 59. Her funeral service was attended by hundreds of fans and people from the music business, including Elvis Costello, Lulu, and Pet Shop Boys. She was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame two weeks after her death. Her hits include I Only Want to Be with You, Wishin’ and Hopin’, In the Middle of Nowhere, You Don’t Have to Say You Love Me, The Look of Love, Son of a Preacher Man, and Brand New Me.

2002–Operation Anaconda begins during the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan.

2003–Singer, Hank Ballard, dies of throat cancer in Los Angeles, California, at age 85. He was one of the first rock 'n' roll artists to emerge in the early 1950s and played an integral part in the development of the genre, releasing the hit single Work With Me, Annie.

2004–Al-Qaeda carries out the Ashoura Massacre in Iraq, killing 170 people and wounding over 500 others.

2004–Actress, Mercedes McCambridge, dies of natural causes in La Jolla, California, at age 87. She appeared in the films All the King’s Men, Lightning Strikes Twice, Johnny Guitar, Giant, A Farewell to Arms, Touch of Evil, and Suddenly, Last Summer.

2004–Marge Schott, American baseball team owner, dies in Cincinnati, Ohio, at age 75. She was the managing general partner, President and CEO of Major League Baseball's Cincinnati Reds franchise from 1984 to 1999. She was the third woman to own a North American major-league team without inheriting it, and the second woman to buy an existing team. She was banned from managing the team by the MLB from 1996 through 1998, due to statements in support of German domestic policies of Nazi party leader, Adolf Hitler. Shortly afterwards, she sold the majority of her share in the team.

2005–Orchestra leader, Martin Denny, dies in Honolulu, Hawaii, at age 93. He was a piano-player and composer best known as the "father of exotica." His biggest hit was Quiet Village, which reached #2 on Billboard's charts in 1959.

2006–Actor, Jack Wild, dies of oral cancer in Tebworth, Bedfordshire, England, at age 53. He struggled with alcoholism and tobacco addiction during most of his adult life. He is best known for his performances in both the stage and screen productions of the Lionel Bart musical, Oliver!, with Ron Moody, Mark Lester, Shani Wallis, and Oliver Reed. He is also known for the leading role of Jimmy in the 1969 children's TV series H.R. Pufnstuf.

2008–Singer-guitarist, Jeff Healey, dies of cancer in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, at age 41. He was a blind jazz and blues-rock vocalist and guitarist who attained popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. Healey began playing guitar when he was three, developing his unique style of playing the instrument flat on his lap. He appeared in the Patrick Swayze film Road House.

2012–An outbreak of tornadoes occurs over a large section of the southern U.S. and into the Ohio Valley region, resulting in 40 tornado-related fatalities.

2014–The 86th Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: 12 Years a Slave; Best Actor: Matthew McConaughey for Dallas Buyers Club; Best Actress: Cate Blanchett for Blue Jasmine; Best Director: Alfonso Cuarón for Gravity; Best Foreign Film: The Great Beauty (Italy). The ceremonies are held at the Dolby Theatre, Hollywood, California. The host is Ellen DeGeneres.

2014–Film producer and screenwriter, Stanley Rubin, dies of natural causes in Los Angeles, California, at age 96. His films include The Narrow Margin, River of No Return, Destry, Francis in the Navy, The Girl Most Likely, Promise Her Anything, and The President’s Analyst.

2016–Iraqi engineers warn that the Mosul Dam could collapse at anytime, resulting in a catastrophic flash flood that could kill up to one million people along the Tigris, with the major Iraqi cites of Mosul, Tikrit, Samarra, and Baghdad all at risk. The U.S. Embassy in Baghdad has urges American citizens to leave the area.

2016–The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) formally designates Lebanon's Hezbollah militia a terrorist organization. The GCC member states are Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.

2016–The United Nations Security Council adopts the toughest sanctions on North Korea in 20 years due to the country’s continued efforts to develop a nuclear weapons program.

2016–Prince Oscar, Duke of Skane and Prince of Sweden, is born Oscar Carl Olof at Karolinska University Hospital in Solna, Sweden. He is the younger child and only son of Crown Princess Victoria and her husband Prince Daniel. He is the fourth grandchild and second grandson of King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia. He is third in the line of succession to the Swedish throne, after his mother and his sister, Princess Estelle.

2017–Former Egyptian President, Hosni Mubarak, is acquitted of involvement in the deaths of hundreds of anti-government protesters during the 2011 Egyptian revolution.

2017–The government of Sweden submits a bill to the Riksdag to reintroduce conscription (military draft) this summer in response to new global security challenges.

2017–Ben Carson is confirmed by the U.S. Senate as Housing and Urban Development Secretary for the Donald Trump administration.

2017–PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) accountants, Martha L. Ruiz and Brian Cullinan, who handled the winners envelopes during the Best Picture mixup at this year's Oscars ceremony, are banned from any further Academy Awards presentations.


PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: George of Podebrady; Sam Houston; Pope Leo XIII; Alexander II; a Master padlock; The Cat in the Hat; Desi Arnaz; Jennifer Jones on Photoplay magazine; D.H. Lawrence; a King Kong poster; a Casablanca poster; Silly Putty; The Osmond Brothers; Elvis Presley in his Army uniform; the opening scene of A Hard Day's Night; Gladys Knight and the Pips; the first McDonald's fast food restaurant; U2; Sandy Dennis; Dusty Springfield; Jack Wild; and Stanley Rubin.

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